Exists diabetes first and second types. Just a few years ago, this statement seemed an axiom. Today, such a classification needs to be revised: scientists have discovered another species diabetes mellitus which has symptoms of both types.
Our expert is a leading researcher at the Federal State Budgetary Institution Endocrinological Research Center, Doctor of Medical Sciences Tatyana Nikonova.
Description and symptoms
Latent LADA diabetes is a latent autoimmune diabetes adults of the first type, which is endowed with the characteristic features of the second type. It is difficult to determine it, since it does not carry pronounced signs of the disease in itself, and people sometimes do not realize that they are seriously ill.
With type 2 diabetes, the level of glucose in the blood and urine rises. With a hidden position, it is more difficult, since insulin is almost not produced, and beta cells are depleted. Thus, a person with latent diabetes needs insulin injections, as well as classic diabetics.
The main symptoms of pathology include the following:
- fast fatiguability,
- increased blood sugar
- sudden weight loss
- constant thirst and frequent urination,
- the appearance of plaque on the tongue, acetone breath.
However, most often LADA is not accompanied by any expressive symptoms. There are no special differences between men and women in the course of the disease. But, studies show, latent diabetes often occurs in pregnant women or some time after giving birth. Women get sick more often than men, and this is primarily due to childbirth.
But still there are some symptoms. These include:
- unjustified weight loss or, conversely, weight gain,
- dry and itchy skin
- constantly hungry
- lack of blush
- feeling of chills.
The most common cause of diabetes is malnutrition, hence the metabolic disorder, pancreatic problems. A genetic predisposition can also provoke the occurrence of these disorders. Particular care must be taken during pregnancy, so the expectant mother should be registered as soon as possible.
To distinguish the latent form of developing diabetes from other stages of the disease, the following diagnostic criteria for Lada diabetes are taken into account: it passes without obesity, a low concentration of the hormone, the presence of ICA and IAA antibodies in the blood indicates an autoimmune failure. Usually, when prediabetes, any major changes do not occur. If the patient has noticed dryness and peeling of the skin, weight gain, you need to contact an endocrinologist.
At the first visit, the doctor prescribes an analysis for blood sugar, but in some conditions of the body, the indicator may be incorrect. It is not particularly accurate to determine the development of the disease and the glucometer with an independent examination. To obtain a more accurate result, blood is taken from a vein. The norm is considered an indicator up to 6.1, above this - the disease begins. In cases of doubt, a second analysis is prescribed, or the patient is examined for glucose tolerance.
This method is the most accurate in diagnosis. It is carried out in 3 stages. On the first day, blood is donated from the finger, then the patient drinks 75 g of glucose. One hour break is taken, blood is again taken. The study continues again after an hour. The results are compared and a conclusion is drawn about the body's response to incoming sugar. To identify the disease, the patient is given prednisone-glucose load, which involves the following procedures:
- For three days, the patient eats food containing at least 300 g of carbohydrates.
- The menu should contain the amount of protein and fat needed by a healthy person.
- 2 hours before glucose intake, prednisolone is administered.
- Blood is taken on an empty stomach after 2 hours. If the rate increases, the diagnosis of latent diabetes is confirmed.
A diagnostic study can also be carried out using the Staub-Traugott test. It consists in the fact that the patient drinks 50 g of glucose, a blood test is done, after a while the patient is given another dose of the drug. In healthy people, an increase in sugar occurs only after the first dose, and in patients with diabetes, sugar is detected after both doses.
Latent Diabetes Treatments
Latent diabetes develops slowly and remains invisible for a long time. A frivolous attitude to its first signs can cause an open form of the disease and various complications. The treatment technique includes the following:
- exercise stress,
- strict diet,
- weight loss
- taking medications and herbal preparations.
The implementation of the first three recommendations is most important, since without them, drug treatment can drag on for a long time and is unlikely to lead to a complete recovery. As for physical activity, it should be feasible and evenly distributed on each day of the week. It is very useful to go swimming, ride a bike and just walk. About 30 minutes a day will be enough. During physical activity, glucose is burned 20 times more than with a sedentary lifestyle.
Treatment of latent diabetes mellitus will not be successful if dietary rules are not followed. You need to eat a little, but often (5-6 times a day), limit the portion of bread at dinner, refuse salty, fatty, sweet, fried and spicy, from all marinades and semi-finished products.
Be sure to have unsweetened vegetables and fruits, nuts, beans, low-fat cottage cheese and kefir in the diet. It is advisable to eat more fish and seafood, celery and liver. In this case, you need to drink the right amount of water.
You should not refuse tea, coffee and alcoholic beverages at all, but abuse can lead to a deterioration in well-being. In order for the pancreas to start producing normal insulin again, small doses of all patients are prescribed insulin injections. The treatment process should be comprehensive. Drugs such as Acarbose or Metformin may stop the development of the diseasebut you need to take them every day for several months or even years.
The use of decoctions of medicinal herbs can perfectly fix the treatment: these are blueberry leaves, dandelion roots, bean leaves, flax seeds. If the latent form of diabetes is detected in a timely manner and proper treatment is started, then the disease is completely cured.
Patient reviews about the drug Diabenot
My mother suffers from diabetes like Lada, sometimes sugar reaches 10, but constantly not less than 7. Passed the diagnosis of diabetes Lada. Used many different drugs and diet followed. They have not transferred to insulin yet. We saw an article on Diabenot on the Internet. The first time we ran into a fake: instead of real capsules, it was compressed grass.
Then they turned through the official website. Mom drank the entire course, no side effects were found. Pills on a natural plant basis, safe for health. I believe that the remedy is worthwhile and useful for those who want to cure diabetes and not harm their health.
I can only say good things about Diabenot. I started drinking these pills after I discovered Lada diabetes mellitus. I got to the hospital for a completely different reason, and after giving the blood for analysis, I found out that I had 6.7 sugar.
The endocrinologist said that it was not fatal, prescribed a diet and Diabenot capsules. I am very glad that I was not late with the treatment. I ordered a drug by mail, drank a month. Here, many are unhappy, but it helped me personally. The medicine is completely safe, it reduces sugar well, almost without chemistry. Recommend.
The second type of diabetes was found in me 2 years ago. I strictly observed all appointments and diets, swallowed tablets with handfuls. She threw sweets, although before she could not without sweets. But the time has come, and I'm just tired of all this abundance of chemistry. I bought Diabenot instead. I drank a month course and feel great.
I check sugar with a glucometer. It was 8, now 6. I want to take another course. I will not say that I became immediately healthy, but I can definitely confirm one thing: I felt much better. Sugar for 3 months did not rise above 5, I do not feel hunger, as before, I go to the toilet less often.
What is latent autoimmune diabetes
Autoimmune organ damage is the process of the formation of antibodies to own cells. The body perceives their constituent parts (membrane parts, internal contents) as foreign antigen proteins. As a result, antigen + antibody immune complexes are formed. Their presence in the pancreas is accompanied by an inflammatory process (insulin) and tissue destruction.
Such a mechanism in 1974 was described with the development of insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes. It mainly affects children and adolescents, but a third of all cases of the disease occur after 35 years. In 1993, it was discovered that type 2 diabetes at an young and middle age can be of autoimmune origin.
It was called latent, that is, sluggish, since all the ongoing changes in the pancreas have not yet been studied.
The term latent autoimmune adult diabetes (LADA) has been preserved, but steadily progressive destruction of the pancreas has been proven, leading to the need for insulin therapy. At the age of 25 to 30 years, this type of disease makes up a quarter of all cases of detected diabetes mellitus, then its prevalence decreases slightly.
And here is more about the suspicion of diabetes.
The majority of patients with latent diabetes at the time of its onset have an age of 30 to 50 years. They often have signs of autoimmune damage to other organs:
- thyroid gland - Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Graves-Bazedov’s disease (toxic goiter),
- adrenal glands - Addison's disease (hormone deficiency),
- skin - vitiligo (spotted pigmentation),
- parietal cells of the stomach - B12-deficient anemia,
- intestines - celiac disease (cereal gluten intolerance).
A tendency to form antibodies to their tissues, autoimmune lesions of various forms among blood relatives of patients with diabetes LADA was found.
Differences between autoimmune type 1 and type 2 diabetes
Latent and insulin-dependent diabetes occur due to the destruction of cells of the islet part of the pancreas. In the first type of disease, antibodies of 4 types are found in the blood - to the cytoplasm of cells, insulin and two enzymes (glutamate decarboxylase and tyrosine phosphatase). With LADA, only one or 2 species are found.
With type 1 disease, latent diabetes brings together:
- autoimmune nature of development,
- decrease in the formation of insulin and C-peptide, gradually increasing in the future,
- the need for hormone administration with significant destruction of the pancreas,
- most often low or normal body weight at the beginning of the disease (not always).
With the second type of diabetes, LADA is similar in:
- slow development of the disease,
- tissue resistance to insulin (insulin resistance),
- early use of diet and pills to reduce sugar.
Since LADA has typical symptoms of both 1 and 2 types of the disease, while they are not all fully expressed, it was witty called type 1.5 diabetes.
Symptoms of pathology in adults
Most often, the onset of the disease is completely similar to type 2 diabetes. Patients appear:
- dry mouth, thirst,
- frequent urination
- moderately increased appetite,
- weight loss
- general weakness, loss of working capacity,
- itching of the skin and perineum,
- tendency to a slight increase in blood pressure,
- tingling, numbness, convulsive twitching of the muscles of the lower extremities,
- frequent colds.
Moreover, most often there is no obesity, but its presence does not exclude the possibility of latent diabetes. When prescribing pills and a low-carb diet, blood sugar normalizes, and the condition of patients improves. This period of relatively favorable course lasts from 6 months to 5 years.
As the pancreas collapses, the pills cease to function, patients lose their body weight. After infections or stress, decompensation may occur - a ketoacidotic state. It is manifested by nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, impaired consciousness, smell of acetone from the mouth. This leads to the need for emergency administration of insulin and transfer the patient to regular injections of the hormone.
The risk of late vascular complications of diabetes mellitus (damage to the kidneys, retina and lower extremities) is just as high as for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. After 10 years of illness, their frequency of development becomes equal.
Diagnosis of the disease
In order to detect LADA diabetes, the following tests are prescribed:
- fasting glucose and after 2 hours of sugar load,
- glycated hemoglobin,
- insulin and C-peptide, necessarily with stimulation tests,
- ketone bodies in blood and urine,
- antibodies to pancreatic glutamate decarboxylase and the cytoplasm of islet cells.
The last study makes it possible to make a diagnosis - at a normal level, the patient has type 2 diabetes, and with an elevated level - latent autoimmune. In addition, the rate of disease progression is estimated by the titer (content) of antibodies.
It is proposed, depending on the increase in antibodies in the blood, to divide patients into 2 groups:
|Frequent ketoacidosis, decreased C-peptide (reflects absolute insulin deficiency due to destruction of beta cells), body weight is normal or reduced, there is no insulin resistance or it is weak.|
(similar to type 2 diabetes)
|Completely opposite signs (rare ketoacidosis, close to normal C-peptide, insulin resistance). There is a tendency to obesity hypertension, increased cholesterol and early development of atherosclerosis.|
Since the study of antibodies is not included in the mandatory list of diabetes diagnostics, and there are often no opportunities for their determination, patients are mistakenly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and the administration of insulin is delayed.
Autoimmune Diabetes Treatment
Since this disease is not considered fully understood, the recommendations for therapy are based on a combination of the basic principles used in the classical type 1 and type 2 diseases.
- the exclusion of simple carbohydrates from food (sugar and flour products),
- restriction of fatty meat, cholesterol-containing products (semi-finished products, offal, cheese and cream with high fat content),
- daily physical activity (total 150 minutes per week),
- with increased body weight - a decrease in caloric intake.
Most often, Metformin or Glucobai is prescribed first. If it is not possible to compensate for increased sugar with tablets and diet, insulin should be used as early as possible.
The most optimal scheme is the intensified administration of the hormone. Long-acting drugs are prescribed in the morning and in the evening, and 30 minutes before meals, patients administer short insulin.
New methods are also being developed, but they are still under study:
- use of immunomodulators,
- growth hormone inhibition by somatostatin (Octreotide),
- subcutaneous administration of small doses of antigen against which antibodies are detected in the blood,
- synthetic C peptide injections
- a combination of insulin, Viktoz and Forsig.
It was found that the use of drugs that stimulate the release of their own insulin, especially glibenclamide (Maninil), leads to rapid depletion of the pancreas. In such cases, diabetes progresses, requires higher doses with insulin therapy.
And here is more about diabetes in children.
An autoimmune development mechanism has been established for type 1 diabetes. The formation of antibodies against the islet part of the pancreas can also cause latent diabetes in adult LADA. He initially has signs of type 2 disease. High levels of glucose can be reduced by tablets and diet.
As the destruction of the cells requires a transition to insulin therapy. Only a blood test for specific antibodies will help to identify the disease and correctly prescribe treatment.
Watch the video on what autoimmune diabetes is:
Suspicion of diabetes can arise in the presence of concomitant symptoms - thirst, excessive urine output. Suspicion of diabetes in a child can occur only with a coma. General examinations and blood tests will help you decide what to do. But in any case, a diet is required.
To understand what types of diabetes are there, to determine their differences can be according to what a person takes - he is insulin-dependent or on tablets. Which type is more dangerous?
If type 1 diabetes is established, treatment will consist of administering insulin of different duration. However, today there is a new direction in the treatment of diabetes - improved pumps, patches, sprays and others.
If the patient has cholecystitis and diabetes at the same time, then he will have to reconsider the diet, if the first disease has only developed. The reasons for its occurrence lie in increased insulin, alcoholism and others. If acute calculous cholecystitis has developed with diabetes mellitus, surgery may be required.
Often the birth of children from parents with diabetes leads to the fact that they are sick with an ailment. The reasons may be in autoimmune diseases, obesity. Types are divided into two - the first and second. It is important to know the features in young people and adolescents in order to diagnose and provide assistance on time. There is prevention of the birth of children with diabetes.
Not two, but a half?
When the beta cells of the pancreas are destroyed, in which it is formed. As a result, the hormone is not produced or is produced in a negligible amount. This leads to an increase blood sugar and subsequent complications. One of the signs of destruction is the development of autoantibodies, components of the immune system that attack pancreatic cells.
When developing your own insulin, it persists for a long time, but at the same time, the sensitivity of tissues to this hormone decreases. Type 1 diabetes usually occurs in young people, in adolescents. Type 2 diabetes appears after 40-50 years.
However, the disease can develop according to the third scenario. At the end of the last century, scientists found seemingly incompatible symptoms in some patients. They had autoantibodies in their bodies, as in type I diabetes.
At the same time, they developed their own insulin and tissue sensitivity to it was reduced, as in the second type. This intermediate subtype of diabetes mellitus was at one time called “type 1.5 diabetes” and even “double diabetes”. But later he received the name "adult latent autoimmune diabetes ».
According to the World Health Organization, the total number of people suffering from diabetes today is over 366 million people. Over the past decades, the patient’s portrait has changed. It turned out that people with poor heredity fell ill in the 50s. And after half a century - those who were much less likely to get sick.
And there are explanations for this. Born in the 1950s, diabetes was extremely difficult to tolerate; there was no such therapy as it is now. Many did not dare or simply could not have children. Accordingly, there were few babies with a hereditary predisposition. But another powerful risk factor has appeared - obesity, which is becoming almost an epidemic. Overeating, unhealthy diet and a sedentary lifestyle - and as a result, a person who should not have been ill with this disease becomes ill.
If therapy with secretogens is prescribed to patients with latent autoimmune diabetes, this will harm the body. The production of your insulin will begin to deplete very quickly, and sugar-lowering drugs will cease to function. Moreover, the insidiousness is that the symptoms of the disease are erased.
The process of destruction of pancreatic cells is slow, and at first it seems that therapy is suitable for a person. As a result, the patient goes to the doctor already with a sharp insulin deficiency.
In the modern world, there is type 1 diabetes mellitus, and there is 2. One is treated (so to speak) with regular injections of insulin, the other with pills that lower blood sugar.
People still have no idea that there is any LADA or unknown MODY. And, nevertheless, they exist in reality. This article is intended to help you learn more about what LADA diabetes is.
Lada diabetes: general information
It is possible to characterize the phenomenon of the human body with such an “automobile” name very briefly and simply - it is an intermediate state of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is even called for this reason "one and a half", or "1.5".
The emergence of the term falls on the 93rd year of the last century. It was then that a new concept appeared in medicine - latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) - latent autoimmune diabetes in adults.
Everything happens like this: B cells die, but not as fast as when, but very slowly, which is most characteristic of type 2. In this regard, the production of the hormone insulin over time is becoming worse, eventually stopping altogether.
How to recognize
Lada diabetes is latent, that is, hidden. Starting to develop, it still gives a person a chance to cure, or at least to “delay”.
Diagnosing the disease is easy. The first is an excess of blood sugar. Secondly, it is a normal weight for all signs of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. That is, if the doctor determines that his patient has all the symptoms, but he is thin, the doctor will be able to make a preliminary diagnosis - LADA.
For confirmation, an additional blood test of the patient is carried out in the laboratory and a number of special tests are carried out.
Another reason for suspecting this type of diabetes can be:
- The age when the disease manifested itself - over 35 years old,
- Over time, the disease flowed into an insulin-dependent form.
The doctor may suggest that this is LADA if there is a history of diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune gastritis, bullous dermatoses and other autoimmune diseases.
The endocrinologist must specify whether the patient has blood relatives in the family who suffered from autoimmune diseases. A positive answer to this question increases the likelihood that this is type 1.5 diabetes.
Symptoms Lada diabetes: how is it detected?
A high probability of developing this disease is observed in pregnant women with a diagnosis. On average, 25% of all such girls have a pathology that goes into type 1.5. This happens immediately after childbirth or after some time.
It is also known that LADA diabetes is diagnosed in people between the ages of 35 and 65 years, but the peak falls on a period of 45-55 years.
To clarify the diagnosis, laboratory tests are performed to determine:
- C-peptide levels are a secondary product of insulin biosynthesis.
- Anti-GAD levels are antibodies to the enzyme involved in the formation of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid).
- The level of ICA - antibodies to islet cells of the pancreas.
How is Lada diabetes treated?
Since the disease can be called sluggish, treatment should be started as quickly as possible in order to prevent a complete cessation of insulin production by the pancreas.
To prevent an attack of the pancreas by the immune system, insulin injections will help. Immediately after the diagnosis is clarified, they are prescribed to all patients, but in small doses. Throughout the day, a person should monitor blood sugar and record indicators.
It is important to comply. In no case should you consume pure sugar and products containing it. Proper nutrition can play a major role here, because thanks to it, soon the pathology can recede.
Moderately active lifestyle will help patients strengthen immunity. Exercises and walks in the fresh air will beneficially affect all systems of the human body, so this point can not be ignored.
Lada diabetes will pass like a bad dream, if you follow all the instructions and advice of your doctor-endocrinologist. A special diet will allow insulin to be administered in minimal quantities, and this drug, in turn, will make it possible to try to preserve beta cells, more precisely, their functionality. Treatment should be adequately and planned - this is the only way to cope with type 1.5 diabetes.
There are 2 types of diabetes - the first and second type. A couple of years ago it was considered an axiom. Nowadays, doctors had to revise the obsolete classification, because scientists have discovered another variant of this disease.
LADA is a latent autoimmune diabetes in adults with signs of type 1 and type 2 disease.
The recently discovered LADA diabetes begins to develop between the ages of thirty-five and sixty-five years, slightly more often between 45-55 years.
The level of sugar in the blood with this pathology increases little by little. Symptoms are similar to type 2 diabetes, so endocrinologists are often mistaken with a diagnosis. In fact, LADA is type 1 diabetes, developing in a milder form.
The disease needs special treatment, because if it is treated according to the type 2 diabetes regimen, then the patient is transferred to insulin after 3-4 years.
With an illiterate approach, it quickly becomes severe when the patient needs to inject large doses of insulin. Blood sugar levels change dramatically. The person’s well-being is stably poor, complications quickly develop. Patients become disabled and die if appropriate treatment is not carried out.
In many Russian-speaking countries, millions of people are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus and treated according to a specific pattern. At the same time, from 6 to 12% of them actually suffer from Lado-diabetes. If this kind of disease is not treated correctly, then the results will be disastrous.
The cause of the pathology is the attack of the immune system of the body of beta cells of the pancreas.
How to distinguish LADA diabetes from the second type of disease? Most endocrinologists do not even ask such a question.
If the patient is thin, but he was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, then he is more likely to have the LADA variety.
In type 2 diabetes, pills that lower sugar are often prescribed: glinides and sulfonylureas. They are harmful to a person suffering from latent autoimmune diabetes.
The immune system of these people hits the pancreas, and harmful pills disrupt homeostasis in general. Beta cells are quickly depleted and the person is transferred to insulin in high doses after 3-4 years.
The main differences between LADA and type 2 diabetes:
Sugar LADA-diabetes has such a main symptom as the presence or absence of excess weight. In order to make a clear diagnosis, the patient is sent for blood donation, on the C-peptide.
People with obesity and high blood sugar can also have Lado diabetes. For diagnosis, they must be tested for C-peptide and antibodies to beta cells.
The main goal in the treatment of LADA diabetes is to preserve the natural production of insulin by the pancreas. When this goal is achieved, the patient has a chance to live to old age without vascular complications.
When latent adults are detected, you should immediately begin to take insulin injections in small doses. Otherwise, then you will have to stab it a lot and suffer from complications.
Insulin injections protect the pancreas from attacks of the immune system.
Treatment for LADA diabetes is as follows:
- Go on a low-carb diet.
- Start a course.
- Constantly monitor the level of sugar throughout the day.
- Do not use sulfonylureas and clayides.
- In the absence of excess weight, do not take Siofor and Glucofage.
- If the patient has a normal body weight, then he needs to engage in physical education to improve health. See the recommended set of exercises in the material.
Target blood sugar 4.5 ± 0.5 mmol / L on an empty stomach, and also after meals. It should not fall below 3.5-3.8 mmol / l, even in the middle of the night.
If a person supports a low-carb diet, then the dosage of insulin is minimal.
When the patient adheres to the regimen and receives insulin injections in a disciplined manner, the function of the pancreatic beta cells will continue.
One of the most specific forms of diabetes is a variety of LADA, namely latent autoimmune diabetes in adults. Pathology is formed between the ages of 35 and 65, most often between 45 and 55. The clinical picture of LADA diabetes resembles an insulin-independent type, and therefore endocrinologists sometimes make the wrong diagnosis. Given this, you need to know everything about the causes, symptoms and other features of the condition.
What is LADA diabetes?
Some experts call LADA diabetes a slowly progressing form of the described endocrine pathology. Another alternative name is 1.5, that is, an intermediate form between type 1 and type 2 diseases. The presented concept is easily explainable, because the full "dying" of the insular apparatus after 35 years is a slow process. In this regard, the symptoms of a sugar disease strongly resemble an insulin-independent form of the disease.
In order to understand what LADA diabetes is, it should be borne in mind that the autoimmune form of pathology provokes the death of pancreatic beta cells. In this regard, the production of its own hormonal component sooner or later will be completely completed. While insulin will be the only treatment for the disease in an adult. Attention deserves the varieties of the LADA type, the reasons for their formation.
Causes of the disease
LADA diabetes is formed due to autoimmune damage to the pancreas. Noting in more detail the causes of the pathology, pay attention to the fact that:
- there is a violation of mineral metabolism in the body,
- an imbalance in fat metabolism is identified, namely hyperlipidemia. In some cases, the opposite process occurs - dyslipidemia,
- the presence of antibodies and low secretion of the C-peptide are additional factors affecting the acceleration of the development of pathology.
Thus, autoimmune diabetes mellitus develops under the influence of a whole range of physiological processes. In order for the treatment to be more effective in the future, you need to know everything about the symptoms of pathology.
Symptoms of latent autoimmune diabetes
Endocrinologists identify a specific scale that includes five criteria and allows you to determine latent diabetes. The first specific manifestation should be considered to be up to 50 years old. It is also worth paying attention to the acute onset of the disease, namely an increased amount of urine (more than two liters per day), thirst, weight loss.Signs and symptoms may result in weakness and loss of strength.
At risk are people with body weight that is slightly less than normal. In addition, the fact of the presence of previously autoimmune diseases: rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune gastritis, Crohn's disease and many other conditions is noteworthy. The presence of autoimmune pathologies in close relatives is noteworthy (these may be parents, grandparents, as well as brothers and sisters).
Against the background of such predisposing factors, the following symptoms appear: thirst and appetite increase, complications of other diseases or even colds appear.
In some cases, LADA diabetes is asymptomatic. As noted earlier, this is due to the fact that the disease develops long enough, and therefore the symptoms are erased and form over a long period of time. In this regard, the only method that allows you to determine the pathology should be considered special attention to the symptoms of all who are at risk. It is recommended to carry out diagnostics once a year to check physiological parameters.
LADA Diabetes Treatment
In order for the treatment to be effective, it is recommended to switch to a low-carb diet, which is the leading means of controlling the disease.
Without following such a diet, all other activities will not be effective.
The next step is to study the features of the use of insulin. You need to learn all about the extended types of the hormonal component (Lantus, Levemir and others), as well as the calculation of the dosages of the fast composition before eating. At a minimal pace, prolonged insulin must be injected, even if, due to a low-carbohydrate diet, the sugar level does not reach 5.5–6 mmol on an empty stomach and after eating.
Speaking about how to treat autoimmune diabetes in adults, pay attention to the fact that:
- dosages of the hormonal component should be low,
- it is advisable to use Levemir, because it is allowed to be diluted, while Lantus is not,
- extended type of insulin is used even if sugar on an empty stomach and after eating does not increase more than 5.5-6 mmol,
- It is important to monitor your blood glucose ratio for 24 hours. It is determined in the morning on an empty stomach, every time before a meal, and also two hours after a meal and at night before going to bed,
- Once a week it is necessary to carry out a similar diagnosis in the middle of the night.
LADA is recommended to treat diabetes, depending on the indicators of sugar, namely, to increase or decrease the amount of prolonged insulin. In the most difficult cases, it may be necessary to administer it from two to four times a day. If, contrary to the use of injections of prolonged insulin, glucose after a meal remains increased, experts insist on the use of fast insulin before meals.
In no case, with a latent form of diabetes, do not take such tablets as sulfonylureas and clayides. They are usually prescribed for type 2 diabetes, and therefore with a 1.5 form they can affect the occurrence of side effects. Names such as Siofor and Glucofage are effective only for obese patients with diabetes. In the absence of excess weight, it is recommended to refuse such items.
Physical activity is another important pathology control tool for obese patients. In the presence of a normal body weight, physical education is necessary in order to strengthen the general immunity, health status. Special attention should be given to preventive measures.
In order to avoid the occurrence of a latent form of diabetes, it is recommended to minimize the influence of negative factors. So, experts insist on controlling body weight and the ratio of glucose in the blood. It will be no less important to follow a diet, to exclude foods saturated with fats from the diet. It is recommended for preventive purposes to engage in sports, as well as use vitamin and other names that will strengthen immunity.
Another important criterion is the periodic implementation of diagnostics: monitoring blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin and cholesterol. All this will allow, if not exclude, then minimize the risks of developing latent autoimmune diabetes.
LADA diabetes, what is it? Translated from English means latent autoimmune diabetes. The scientific term originated in 1993 and was described in the article “Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults”. The study of LADA diabetes in Russia was proceeding at a slower pace, which made the diagnosis of the disease difficult. This type of diabetes has symptoms of the second form, but the nature of the origin is similar to the first. For this reason, it is called one and a half (1.5). According to statistics, up to 50% of patients suffering from the second type of disease are affected by latent autoimmune diabetes in adults.
Manifestation as a fact of illness
There is an opinion that fret diabetes is a lightweight form of the manifestations of diabetes 1. The mechanism of the development of the disease occurs as in type 1 - B cells die, but very slowly. Accordingly, insulin is released worse into the bloodstream and ceases to be produced at all over time. The only difference from the other two types of diabetes is an autoimmune failure in the body.
The symptom complex in diabetes lada is identical to the usual classic course of the disease. With an increase in blood sugar and a simultaneous deficiency of insulin, ketoacidosis occurs.
The most common symptoms are:
- Constant intense thirst.
- Dry mouth.
- Nausea, vomiting.
In severe cases, a pathological condition can lead to a coma.
In addition, standard symptoms of the disease are present. These include:
- Tremor, trembling and chills of the body.
- Pale skin and mucous membranes.
- Weight loss, frequent diuresis.
It is worth noting that fret diabetes can occur for a long time without any symptoms.
LADA diabetes mellitus proceeds in a latent form (secretively), however, with its early diagnosis there is a chance for a complete cure. The disease is easily diagnosed. This is primarily a stable increase in blood sugar in the patient. At the same time, the weight remains normal, as in the clinic of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
The main thing in the diagnosis of the disease is differentiation from other forms. With the form of LADA diabetes, the patient has a normal body weight, the level of c-peptide is always reduced in the blood, even after glucose loading. And another distinguishing feature is antibodies in the blood to beta cells.
There are two types of diabetes lada. The first is very similar to type 1 diabetes. It is characterized by a young patient age, small portions of c-peptides during blood donation for analysis and the presence of HLA genotypes. The second developmental option is more often described in older people who are overweight and also lack of antibodies of the HLA genotypes. The course of the disease resembles type 2 diabetes.
In the diagnosis of autoimmune latent disease (LADA), a detailed history is first collected. An important factor is a hereditary predisposition to the disease. Then, a direction is given to take general blood, urine, biochemistry and blood sugar tests, and a more in-depth diagnostic laboratory analysis is prescribed to detect LADA diabetes. The study of autoantibodies to insulin - this test is the most basic in the diagnosis of the disease.
Additional studies include:
- Determination of glycated hemoglobin.
- Determination of glucose tolerance.
- Determination of antibodies to cells of islets of Langerhas.
- Precise genotyping.
- Blood test indicators: leptin, microalbumin, glucagon, pancreatic peptide.
Diagnosis is based on test results and only by a doctor. We can talk about the severity of the disease, respectively, to choose adequate therapy.
Lada diabetes can be cured if you detect it at an early stage!
Therapy as a way to eliminate pathology
LADA diabetes is slow and may remain invisible for a long time. Therefore, treatment should be started immediately as it was discovered, in order to avoid the complete cessation of insulin production by the pancreas, since the immune bodies attack and lead to the death of the gland cells. In order to prevent this, insulin injections are immediately prescribed. When a diagnosis is approved, it is prescribed in small doses, but to all patients. Insulin protects the pancreas from the destruction of its cells by the autoimmune system. The main objective in therapy is to preserve the natural production of insulin in the pancreas.
Treatment should be comprehensive. It is important to control the intake of simple carbohydrates in the body and count the bread units for which special tables are provided. A bread unit is a specific measure of carbohydrates. Treatment involves consuming a low-carb diet; pure sugar is permanently removed from the diet.
In addition, treatment is a slowdown in autoimmune inflammation due to the slow activity of autoantigens. And, of course, maintaining normal blood sugar. For this, patients are prescribed special sugar-containing drugs.
It is important to remember that with LADA diabetes, sulfonylureas and clayides should not be taken, Siofor and Glucofage are prescribed only for obese patients, which is observed with type 2 diabetes, but not with LADA diabetes.
If long-acting insulin can not cope with a decrease in sugar, then quick-type insulin can be “jabbed” before meals.
In addition to therapy, they recommend an active lifestyle, sports or fitness, hirudotherapy and physiotherapy exercises. Alternative medicine is also applicable in the treatment of autoimmune diabetes, but only with the agreement of the attending physician.
Diabetes lada has a favorable outcome with its early diagnosis and timely treatment. It is very important to follow all the instructions and recommendations of the endocrinologist and lead an active lifestyle. If you strictly observe diet, then insulin will be needed in very small doses. And only then can you completely recover from this disease.