How type 1 and type 2 diabetes is transmitted, prevention of hereditary diabetes

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Diabetes mellitus is a serious chronic disease requiring expensive treatment and a complete restructuring of the patient's life under the conditions dictated by the disease. Diabetes cannot be cured; patients throughout their lives are forced to take vital medications to maintain their health.

Therefore, people suffering from this ailment are interested in the question: is diabetes transmitted by inheritance? After all, no one wants his children to fall ill. To understand the issue, consider the causes and types of this disease.

Causes of the disease

Diabetes mellitus occurs as a result of the inability of the pancreas to produce the hormone insulin or its insufficient production. Insulin is needed to deliver glucose to the cells of the body’s tissues, which enters the bloodstream when food is broken down.

No one is immune from illness. But, like any disease, diabetes does not occur for no reason.

You can get sick with the following circumstances:

  1. Hereditary predisposition
  2. Pancreatic disease
  3. Overweight, obesity,
  4. Alcohol abuse
  5. Sedentary lifestyle, inactivity,
  6. The transfer of infectious and viral diseases that lead to a decrease in immunity,
  7. Constant stress and adrenaline rush,
  8. Taking drugs that cause a diabetic effect.

Types of Diabetes

The most common types of diabetes are:

  • Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DM 1). The pancreas practically does not produce insulin or does not produce enough for the full functioning of the body. The patient is injected with insulin for life, without injection he can die. T1DM accounts for approximately 15% of all cases.
  • Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DM 2). The muscle cells of patients are not able to absorb insulin, which is normally produced normally by the body. With diabetes, 2 patients are prescribed a diet and drugs that stimulate insulin uptake.

Diabetes and heredity

There is an opinion that type 1 diabetes is a hereditary disease, and type 2 diabetes is acquired in 90% of cases. But data from recent studies have shown that patients with type 2 diabetes in previous generations also have sick relatives.

Yes, heredity is one of the main factors. Scientists have found that the risk of a disease is transmitted through genes. But it will be wrong to say that diabetes is inherited. Only predisposition is inherited. Whether a person becomes ill depends on a number of related factors: lifestyle, nutrition, the presence of stress and other diseases.

What are the risks

Heredity is 60-80% of the total probability of getting sick. If a person in previous generations has or had relatives with diabetes, he is exposed to risks identified on the basis of patterns:

  1. The insulin-dependent form is more common in men than in women.
  2. An insulin-dependent form can be transmitted through a generation. If grandparents had diabetes, and their children are healthy, grandchildren can get sick.
  3. The probability of inheritance by a child of diabetes mellitus 1 with a disease in one of the parents is 5%. If the mother is sick, then the risk of illness for the child is 3%, if the father is 9%, both parents are 21%.
  4. With age, the risk of developing diabetes 1 decreases. If a person has a strong predisposition, more often he begins to get sick from childhood.
  5. The probability of illness in children with type 2 diabetes in one of the parents reaches 80%. When both parents are ill, the likelihood is even higher. Excess weight and the wrong lifestyle accelerate the onset of the disease.
  6. When assessing risks, not only close relatives are taken into account. The more relatives of a person with diabetes mellitus a person has, the higher his risk of getting sick, provided that all relatives have the same type of diabetes.
  7. A dangerous period is pregnancy. With a high predisposition at the twentieth week, the mother's blood sugar level may increase. After childbirth, the symptom either disappears without a trace or develops into any type of diabetes mellitus.
  8. If one of the identical twins showed symptoms, the second child will fall ill in 50% of cases with type 1 diabetes and up to 70% of cases with type 2 diabetes.

The question arises: is it possible to prevent the spread of the disease? Unfortunately, although scientists have figured out how diabetes is inherited, they cannot influence this process.

Prevention

If your relatives suffer from this ailment and you are at risk, do not despair. This does not mean that you will inherit diabetes. A correct lifestyle helps to delay the disease or even avoid it.

Follow the recommendations below:

  • Regular examinations. It is recommended to be checked at least once a year. Diabetes can occur in hidden form for years and decades. Therefore, it is necessary not only to study fasting glycemia, but also to undergo a glucose tolerance test. The sooner you detect signs of the disease and take action, the easier it will go. This is especially true for young children. Monitoring and control should be carried out from birth.
  • Weight Tracking. As practice shows, 80% of patients with type 2 diabetes are full people. Overweight is one of the factors that trigger the disease, so you need to avoid it. Proper nutrition and exercise will help you keep track of weight.
  • Proper nutrition. Meals should be regular. Limit your intake of sweet and starchy foods. Avoid drinking alcohol.
  • Physical exercise. A sedentary lifestyle is one of the concomitant factors for the development of diabetes. Introduce regular exercise routines into your daily routine. Very useful walks in the fresh air. Walk briskly for at least half an hour a day.

Try not to overwork, adhere to the regime, avoid stress. This will negate the factors provoking the disease.

Types of diabetes and the role of genetics in disease transmission

This disease occurs because beta cells of the pancreas are damaged. Then, in turn, the body starts the autoimmune processes in which t-lymphocytes are involved and MHC proteins are simultaneously produced on the cell surface.

In the case of the presence of certain genes (there are about fifty of them), there is a massive death of pancreatic cells. This genotype is inherited from parents to their children.

  • Type 1 diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent). The pancreas produces little insulin.
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus (insulin-resistant). The body cannot use glucose from the blood.

Is type 1 diabetes inherited

A specific feature of this type of diabetes is that it can manifest itself not in the first generation, but in subsequent ones. It turns out that if the parents do not have this disease, then this does not mean that their children will not suffer from it.

Another unpleasant fact proved by scientists is that type 1 diabetes can be transmitted even if there are no risk factors. The implementation of preventive measures (diet, moderate physical activity) does not always allow a person to avoid this disease.

So even a competent specialist, having all the necessary test results on hand, will not be able to answer the question “Is type 1 diabetes mellitus able to be inherited?” It can only render a verdict on the patient’s condition at a particular point in time. This can be either a complete absence of signs of the disease, or the presence of diabetes or prediabetes.

Prediabetes will be characterized by increased blood sugar and, as a result, high numbers of such an indicator as glycosylated hemoglobin. If you do not timely compensate for the increased sugar with a special diet and exercise, this can lead to disastrous consequences. We are talking about the massive destruction of cells that produce insulin.

To get an answer to the question whether type 1 diabetes is inherited, you can refer to the statistics. If you believe the numbers, then the percentage of morbidity associated with hereditary factors is quite small (2-10%).

If the father is sick, then the disease is more likely to be inherited - 9%. If the mother is sick, only 3%.

If we consider the case of identical twins, then the probability of developing their diabetes, if both parents suffer from an ailment, will be about 20%. But if the disease manifested itself in one child from a couple, then the second, most likely, also has this disease. It can for the time being proceed secretly and not have clinical symptoms. The probability of such a development of events is almost 50%.

If you take sugar tests at least once every couple of years, then this will be enough to recognize the disease on time and take up its treatment. In this case, organs and tissues will not have time to undergo irreversible changes.

It should be noted that based on the latest data, the incidence of type 1 diabetes has begun to decrease. Moreover, at the age of about 30 years old, the chances of getting sick almost vanish.

Is type 2 diabetes inherited

But this type of diabetes is definitely capable of being inherited. If one of the parents is sick, his child has a risk of getting this disease about 80%. If both the father and the mother suffer from the disease, then their children will have almost no chance of avoiding the disease.

If we make a comparison between identical twins, then if one of them has a disease, the second one will also manifest with a probability of 80%.

Despite this, one cannot adhere to the belief that diabetes cannot be avoided in such a case. If you change your lifestyle, follow certain rules, then the risks of getting sick will significantly decrease or disappear altogether.

Let's look at the rules that you should adhere to in order to avoid the onset of the disease in the presence of a burdened hereditary history:

  1. You need to exclude fast carbohydrates from your diet. Under the strictest ban, all cakes, cakes, sweets, cookies, pastries. Also, do not buy harmful semi-finished products, chocolate bars, chips, soda and so on. It is better to choose slow carbohydrates, and even they are allowed to eat before dinner.
  2. Reduce the amount of fat consumed. The fact is that they interfere with the normal absorption of glucose by cells due to changes in insulin receptors.
  3. Try to adhere to an active lifestyle.
  4. Constantly monitor the tests (glycosylated hemoglobin, glucose).
  5. Monitor your blood pressure.
  6. Reduce the amount of salt consumed. It can be difficult at first. But after some time, the receptors adapt, and under-salted food will no longer seem tasteless.
  7. Learn to adequately respond to stressful situations.
  8. Hardening procedures from the earliest childhood.

If you follow these rules and lead a correct lifestyle, then it is quite possible to live a healthy life, despite the fact that there is an unfavorable heredity. It all depends on the willpower and diligence of the person himself. But this does not cancel the preventive examinations by the endocrinologist and the control of blood tests.

Is the disease inherited?

Diabetes mellitus is a serious disease from which neither children nor adults are insured. It can be congenital and acquired. Naturally, parents suffering from such an ailment ask themselves the question: how to find out if diabetes is inherited by children.

How is diabetes transmitted?

The disease is characterized by a violation in the human body of carbohydrate metabolism. Such a pathology, transmitted in other cases by inheritance, can be of various types. The most common type 1 and type 2 diabetes is considered. 1 type has a hereditary nature. Type 2 is predominantly acquired, in 90% of cases. This is facilitated by ignoring a healthy lifestyle, junk food, environmental factors. Some drugs, in particular synthetic hormones, have a diabetic effect. Alcohol use at risk of developing this disease must be stopped. Pancreatic disease is a dangerous indicator of a predisposition to the disease. If it does not produce enough insulin, then you are on your way to diabetes.

If we talk about which parent is more likely to influence the risk of transmitting diabetes to a child, then in 9% of cases of a child with type 1 diabetes, the father is “guilty”, and only 3% are the mother. As a rule, diabetes is transmitted through a generation. So if your parents are diagnosed with diabetes mellitus and you don’t have it, then perhaps your children will get such an inborn ailment. This conclusion can be drawn from the laws of inheritance.

Signs of diabetes in a child

Parents need to pay attention to the following symptoms:

  1. The buildup of thirst. This can be an alarming symptom if the child has not drunk so often before, and now he is thirsty.
  2. Rapid urination at any time of the day.
  3. Losing weight.
  4. In older children - fatigue, weakness.

In this case, it is better to consult a doctor for advice.

However, one cannot despair, because even having a bad heredity, everyone can afford to avoid the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus or at least delay it.

First of all, you need to think about your own nutrition. Having a dangerous heredity, you need to carefully monitor how much carbohydrates enter your body. Of course, there is no need to completely abandon cakes, pastries and other sweets. It is important to consume them sparingly. Also, pay attention to how much salt goes into your body. Daily rate - no more than 3 g.

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Include physical activity in your daily routine. Outdoor walks are especially helpful. A half hour walk a day will save you from physical inactivity.

Keep track of your nervous system. Currently, people are more susceptible to stress than ever. You can not drive yourself into depression, because with diabetes it is especially dangerous. Everyone knows that most people try to "seize" their condition, thereby only exacerbating it. It is not difficult to cope with depression: it is enough to increase the physical load on the body, for example, enrolling in a pool or going to the gym.

Thus, of course, diabetes is more common in children whose parents suffer from this serious ailment, because it is inherited. However, this is not always the case.

And even if you or your child has diabetes, proper nutrition, exercise, limited intake of sweets, sports will help to maintain normal.

After all, a person, if desired, can build his life according to his own ideas.

About hereditary diseases and diabetes

Each organism has the biological ability to transmit its functional capabilities and morphological characters to subsequent generations.Information about a particular disease, embedded in the genes of parents, grandparents, automatically passes by inheritance. The manifestation and development of gene pathologies depends on group affiliation.

In total, three groups of hereditary diseases are distinguished:

  • Gene. They are born as a result of damage to the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) macromolecule, which ensures the preservation and transmission of genetic information from generation to generation. That is, the mutation of genes of one chromosome (alleles) occurs at the molecular level. (Examples: phenylketonuria, alkaptonuria, Gaucher disease, lactose intolerance, disturbances in bilirubin metabolism, hemophilia, etc.).
  • Chromosomal syndromes. They arise due to a violation of the qualitatively-quantitative chromosome set, which develops as a result of a mutation in the germ cells of one of the parents (Turner-Shershevsky syndrome, Down syndrome, Wolff-Hirschhorn syndrome, Edwards syndrome and others).
  • Pathology with predisposition. They are characterized by the presence of an altered gene pool, but not by the obligatory activity of these changes. The manifestation of diseases depends on how the gene mutation occurred and how external living conditions affect. (Examples: chronic non-communicable diseases: diabetes, ischemia, ulcer, etc.).

Based on this classification, diabetes is inherited, since its presence is genetically incorporated. But the development of pathology is determined by the type of mutation and external conditions. Each chromosome (normally) contains two genes; when one of them changes, the second one may not mutate. When a damaged gene blocks a healthy one, a dominant mutation develops, leading to the progression of a genetic disease. If a healthy gene has the strength to “work for two,” a hereditary disease goes into a sleeping state.

Congenital metabolic disorders and disorders of other biochemical processes, such as diabetes, are transmitted along a recessive basis. In order for diabetes mellitus caused by a recessive mutation to occur, the body must have two genes with the same disorders. That is, to inherit them from both parents. However, the transfer of genetic information does not have to be direct. Parents can be part of a group of the so-called skipping generation, and diabetes can be transmitted from grandparents.


Recessive mutation inheritance pattern

The nature of the recessive trait may change under the influence of external conditions. For the development of the disease, activation of certain triggers (triggers) is necessary, that is, there is a negative impact on the body. The presence of diabetes in parents does not guarantee its development in children. The child inherits a predisposition to the disease, that is, a set of affected genes for the activation of which certain conditions are needed.

Types of Disease and Possible Genetic Risks

Diabetes mellitus is primarily a malfunction in the production and sale by the body of a highly active biological substance - insulin. This hormone is responsible for the transportation and adaptation of glucose to the body's cells as the main source of energy. The typification of the disease is due to the nature of endocrine disorders.

Is diabetes inherited or not?

Diabetes mellitus is a common disease of a chronic course. Almost everyone has friends who are ill with them, and relatives have such a pathology - mother, father, grandmother. That is why many are interested in whether diabetes is inherited?

In medical practice, two types of pathology are distinguished: type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The first type of pathology is also called insulin-dependent, and a diagnosis is made when the hormone insulin is practically not produced in the body, or is partially synthesized.

Video (click to play).

With a "sweet" disease of type 2, the patient's independence from insulin is revealed. In this case, the pancreas independently produces a hormone, but due to a malfunction in the body, a decrease in the sensitivity of tissues is observed, and they cannot fully absorb or process it, and this leads to problems after some time.

Many diabetics wonder how diabetes is transmitted. Can the disease be transmitted from mother to child, but from father? If one parent has diabetes, what is the likelihood that the disease will be inherited?

Why do people have diabetes, and what is the reason for its development? Absolutely anyone can become ill with diabetes, and it is almost impossible to insure themselves against pathology. The development of diabetes is influenced by certain risk factors.

The factors that provoke the development of pathology include the following: excess body weight or obesity of any degree, pancreatic ailments, metabolic disorders in the body, a sedentary lifestyle, constant stress, many diseases that inhibit the functioning of the human immune system. Here you can write down the genetic factor.

As you can see, most factors can be prevented and eliminated, but what if the hereditary factor is present? Unfortunately, fighting genes is completely useless.

But to say that diabetes is inherited, for example, from mother to child, or from another parent, is fundamentally a false statement. Generally speaking, a predisposition to pathology can be transmitted, nothing more.

What is predisposition? Here you need to clarify some of the subtleties about the disease:

  • The second type and type 1 diabetes are inherited polygenically. That is, traits are inherited that are based not on a single factor, but on a whole group of genes that are able to influence only indirectly; they can have an extremely weak effect.
  • In this regard, we can say that risk factors can affect a person, as a result of which the effect of genes is enhanced.

If we talk about the percentage ratio, then there are certain subtleties. For example, in a husband and wife everything is in order with health, but when children appear, the child is diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. And this is due to the fact that the genetic predisposition was transmitted to the child through one generation.

It is worth noting that the likelihood of developing diabetes in the male line is much higher (for example, from grandfather) than in the female line.

Statistics say that the probability of developing diabetes in children, if one parent is sick, is only 1%. If both parents have a disease of the first type, then the percentage increases to 21.

At the same time, the number of relatives suffering from type 1 diabetes is mandatory taken into account.

Diabetes and heredity are two concepts that are to some extent related, but not as many people think. Many worry that if the mother has diabetes, then she will also have a child. No, that’s not at all true.

Children are prone to disease factors, like all adults. Simply, if there is a genetic predisposition, then we can think about the likelihood of developing a pathology, but not about a fait accompli.

In this moment, you can find a definite plus. Knowing that children can have “acquired” diabetes, factors that can affect the amplification of genes transmitted through the genetic line must be prevented.

If we talk about the second type of pathology, then there is a high probability that it will be inherited. When the disease is diagnosed only in one parent, the probability that the son or daughter will have the same pathology in the future is 80%.

If diabetes is diagnosed in both parents, the “transmission” of diabetes to a child is close to 100%. But again, you need to remember the risk factors, and knowing them, you can take the necessary measures in time. The most dangerous factor in this case is obesity.

Parents should understand that the cause of diabetes lies in many factors, and under the influence of several at the same time, the risk of developing pathology increases. In view of the information provided, the following conclusions can be drawn:

  1. Parents should take all necessary measures to exclude risk factors from their child's life.
  2. For example, a factor is numerous viral diseases that weaken the immune system, therefore, the child needs to be hardened.
  3. From early childhood, it is recommended to control the weight of the child, monitor its activity and mobility.
  4. Children need to be introduced to a healthy lifestyle. For example, write to the sports section.

Many people who have not experienced diabetes mellitus do not understand why it develops in the body, and what are the complications of pathology. Against the background of poor education, many people ask if diabetes is transmitted through biological fluid (saliva, blood).

There is no answer to such a question, diabetes cannot do this, and indeed cannot in any way. Diabetes can be "transmitted" after a maximum of one generation (the first type), and then the disease itself is transmitted not, but genes with a weak effect.

As described above, the answer to whether diabetes is transmitted is no. The only point inheritance may be in the type of diabetes. More precisely, in the probability of developing a certain type of diabetes in a child, provided that one parent has a history of illness, or both parents.

Undoubtedly, with diabetes in both parents there is a certain risk that it will be in children. However, in this case, it is necessary to do everything possible and everything dependent on the parents to prevent the disease.

Health workers argue that an unfavorable genetic line is not a sentence, and certain recommendations must be followed from childhood to help eliminate certain risk factors.

The primary prevention of diabetes is proper nutrition (the exclusion of carbohydrate products from the diet) and hardening of the child, starting from infancy. Moreover, the principles of nutrition of the whole family should be reviewed if close relatives have diabetes.

You need to understand that this is not a temporary measure - this is a change in lifestyle in the bud. It is necessary to eat properly not a day or several weeks, but on an ongoing basis. It is extremely important to monitor the weight of the child, therefore, exclude the following products from the diet:

  • Chocolate candies.
  • Carbonated drinks.
  • Cookies, etc.

You need to try not to give your child harmful snacks, in the form of chips, sweet chocolate bars or cookies. All this is harmful to the stomach, has a high calorie content, which leads to excess weight, as a result, one of the pathological factors.

If it is difficult for an adult who already has certain habits to change his lifestyle, then everything is much easier with a child when preventive measures are introduced from an early age.

After all, the child does not know what a chocolate bar or a delicious candy is, so it is much easier for him to explain why he cannot eat it. He has no cravings for consuming carbohydrate foods.

If there is a hereditary predisposition to pathology, then you need to try to exclude the factors leading to it. Definitely, this does not insure 100%, but the risks of developing the disease will significantly decrease. The video in this article talks about the types and types of diabetes.

Diabetes mellitus of the insulin-dependent and insulin-resistant form is a chronic disease that cannot be treated. Type 1 disease can develop at any age, while type 2 diabetes mellitus most often occurs after 40 years.

The development of pathology is associated with the peculiarity of the production of the hormone insulin in the pancreas. The first type of disease is characterized by a lack of intrinsic insulin, resulting in the accumulation of glucose in the blood.

The cessation of the production of insulin in the pancreas occurs as a result of an autoimmune process, as a result of which the person’s own immunity inhibits the hormone-producing cells. Why this happens has not yet been clarified, as is the direct relationship between heredity and the development of pathology.

Type 2 diabetes is characterized by impaired carbohydrate metabolism, in which the cell’s susceptibility to glucose is impaired, that is, glucose is not consumed for its intended purpose and accumulates in the body. A person's own insulin is produced, and there is no need to stimulate its production. Usually this develops against the background of excess weight, which entails a metabolic disorder.

The first (insulin-dependent) type requires the injection of insulin into the body by injection. The second type of disease (insulin-resistant) is treated without injection, with the help of diet therapy.

The insulin-dependent form develops as a result of an autoimmune process, the causes of which have not yet been elucidated. The insulin-resistant form is associated with metabolic disturbances.

The following factors can trigger the development of diabetes:

  • pancreas diseases
  • stress and hormonal disruptions,
  • obesity,
  • lack of physical activity,
  • metabolic disease,
  • taking certain drugs with a side diabetes effect,
  • hereditary predisposition.

The disease is inherited, but not in the way it is commonly believed. If one of the parents has this disease, the group of genes that cause the disease is passed on to the child, but the child is born healthy. To activate the genes responsible for the development of diabetes, a push is needed, which can be prevented by doing everything possible to minimize the remaining risk factors. This is true if one of the parents had type 2 diabetes.

It is difficult to answer unequivocally to the question of whether diabetes mellitus is inherited from mother or father.

The gene responsible for the development of this disease is transmitted most often along the paternal side. However, there is no one hundred percent risk of developing the disease. To develop diabetes mellitus of the first or second type, heredity plays an important role, but not fundamental.

For example, type 1 diabetes can occur in a child with absolutely healthy parents. It often turns out that this pathology was observed in one of the older generation - grandmothers or even great-grandmothers. In this case, the parents were carriers of the gene, but they themselves did not get sick.

It is difficult to answer unambiguously how diabetes is transmitted and what to do to those who inherited this gene. A push is needed to develop this disease. If with an insulin-independent form such an impetus becomes an incorrect lifestyle and obesity, then the causes of type 1 disease are still not known for sure.

You can often hear the misconception that type 2 diabetes is a hereditary disease. This statement is not entirely true, since this is an acquired pathology that can appear with age in a person among whose relatives there are no patients with diabetes.

If both parents have an insulin-dependent form of the disease, the likelihood that diabetes is transmitted to their child by inheritance is about 17%, but it is impossible to say clearly whether the child will become ill or not.

If pathology is detected in only one parent, the chance of developing the disease in children is no more than 5%. It is impossible to prevent the development of type 1 diabetes, so parents should carefully monitor the baby’s health and regularly measure blood glucose.

An insulin-independent form is characterized by metabolic disorders.Due to the fact that both diabetes and metabolic disorders are transmitted from parents to children, the likelihood of a child becoming ill in this case is much higher and is about 70% if both parents are sick. However, for the development of an insulin-resistant form of pathology, a push is needed, the role of which is a sedentary lifestyle, obesity, an unbalanced diet or stress. Lifestyle changes in this case can significantly reduce the risk of developing the disease.

You can often hear the question of whether diabetes is transmitted through contact, either through blood or not. It should be remembered that this is not a viral or infectious disease, therefore, when in contact with a patient or his blood there is no risk of infection.

Insulin-dependent type of disease

The mechanism of development of type 1 diabetes is associated with the failure of the pancreas to perform the endocrine function of insulin production. Without insulin, the following reactions occur: the process of gluconeogenesis is accelerated - the release of amino acids from protein foods, their further breakdown into simple sugars and release into the bloodstream, the accumulation of glucose in the blood, since there is no one to deliver it to tissues and cells. To artificially mimic biological processes, the patient needs regular injections of medical insulin.

Diabetes Tests

There are two main reasons for the development of the first type of diabetes:

  • Dysfunctional heredity. Domination of a damaged gene or recessive mutation.
  • The development of autoimmune processes. Failure of the immune system, characterized by a change in protective functions to destructive, directed against the cells of your own body.

Activation of disorders (autoimmune and genetic) occurs under the influence of a number of factors:

  • Infectious diseases of viral etiology. Acute and chronic infections take the immune system off balance. The most dangerous are HIV and AIDS, herpetic viruses: Coxsackie, cytomegalovirus, human herpes virus type 4 (Epstein-Barr).
  • Numerous allergies, that is, the immune system produces antibodies in an emergency mode, which leads to its malfunction.
  • A hypodynamic lifestyle with unhealthy diets. The abundance of simple carbohydrates in the menu leads to pathologies of the pancreas, inadequate motor activity slows down metabolic processes and provokes obesity.

In addition, the incorrect intake of certain medications can be dangerous for potential diabetics.

Risks of type 1 diabetes

According to medical statistics, mutated genes inherited from the father are manifested by the development of diabetes in a child in 9% of cases. If the predisposition is inherited on the maternal side, the percentage will be 3-5. In the case when diabetes is diagnosed in both parents, the probability reaches 21%. In the presence of other close relatives with diabetes and parents with diabetes, the risk increases 4 times.

In the case of transmission of the disease through a generation when the parents are only carriers of genetic information, 1 type is determined in children. The first type of diabetes is called juvenile diabetes, since the main group of patients is children and adolescents. The disease most often manifests itself in newborns or in children during puberty. The risk of pathology decreases with age. After 20–25 years, an insulin-dependent form of the disease is not diagnosed, it is believed that the child has “outgrown” a hereditary predisposition.

If at birth twins in one of the children are diagnosed with diabetes, in the other it subsequently develops in half the cases. A significant danger is gestational diabetes. The disease that occurred in a woman in the perinatal period can either disappear after delivery, or develop into a chronic pathology. The frequency of cases is about 25%, while the type of disease can be any.

Insulin-independent pathology

The main difference between type 2 diabetes and type 1 diabetes is that the pancreas does not stop the production of insulin. The problem is the inability of the tissues and cells of the body to adequately perceive and rationally spend the hormone. This condition is called insulin resistance (impaired sensitivity and response). As a result of inactivity of insulin, sugar accumulates in the blood.

A complete cessation of endocrine activity (insulin production) by the pancreas is observed only in the severe stage of decompensation, when the disease becomes insulin-dependent. There is no definite answer to the question of whether type 2 diabetes is inherited or acquired by a person during life. The development of the disease is influenced by both external causes and the existing group of damaged genes. The combination of these two factors leads to type 2 diabetes in 80% of cases.

External causes that determine the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes:

  • frequent allergies with improper treatment of symptoms, rather than eliminating the cause,
  • chronic diseases of the heart, blood vessels, pancreas,
  • improper eating behavior (abuse of monosaccharides and disaccharides),
  • uncontrolled intake of alcoholic beverages,
  • long-term treatment with hormone-containing drugs,
  • pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes.

Insulin resistance tends to occur against the background of distress (permanent stay in a stressed neuropsychological state). With a healthy lifestyle and the observance of preventive measures, the hereditary factor of type 2 diabetes as a mono cause may not work.

The risks of type 2 diabetes

Adults are susceptible to insulin-independent pathology. Most often, the disease declares itself at the age of 40+. By gender, type 2 diabetes is more common in women during premenopause and menopause. This is due to intensive hormonal changes in the body. The production of sex hormones (progesterone and estrogen), thyroid hormones is reduced, as a result of which the body loses control over metabolic processes.

In addition, hormonal changes lead to weight gain. Cells lose their susceptibility to insulin, the production of which, on the contrary, increases with age. Insulin resistance develops. The possibility of transmission of an insulin-independent form of the disease by inheritance is quite high. On the maternal or paternal side - up to 80%, in the presence of affected genes in both parents - up to 100%. But in order for the genetic tendency to set in motion, provocation in the form of adverse external influences is necessary.


The main triggers for the progression of type 2 diabetes are considered obesity and alcoholism.

The second type of diabetes can develop without the participation of hereditary causes. Obesity leads to endocrine and metabolic failures, alcoholism kills the cells of the pancreas. As a result, tissue susceptibility to insulin is impaired. Both types of diabetes are not contagious diseases. Due to the non-infectious nature of the origin, it is absolutely impossible to become infected with endocrine pathology through the blood or in other ways.

Objective Prevention of Diabetes

Since diabetes is not an obligatory disease, but is a hereditary predisposition, there is hope to protect yourself from type 2 diabetes. With a genetic addiction in the first type of chances, unfortunately, there are either no or very few. If the pathology is not diagnosed at birth, parents are required to create such conditions of nutrition and accommodation in which it will be impossible to provoke damaged genes to activity.

Such measures do not give a 100% guarantee, however, when it is possible to hold out for up to 20 years and deceive the disease, in the future the chances of transmission are almost zero. Prevention of an insulin-independent pathology is a healthy lifestyle with the exception of possible triggers. Preventive measures include:

  • diet correction (setting a strict limit on fast carbohydrates and alcoholic beverages),
  • compliance with the diet (at least 5 times a day) and the restriction of single servings (no more than 350 gr.),
  • compliance with the drinking regime (1.5 - 2 liters of fluid per day),
  • rational exercise
  • intake of vitamin and mineral complexes and herbal preparations,
  • regular visits to the doctor to monitor blood counts,
  • strict control over body weight.

If you want to prevent diabetes, the above measures are not a temporary measure, but a way of life. Predisposition to genetic diseases is not predictable. Knowing the presence of diabetics among close relatives, you must try to avoid the disease or at least delay its development.

First type of disease

Ailments of the first and second type are essentially completely different diseases. They have a different course and different causes. The only thing they have in common is that as a result of the course of pathological diseases, there is one common symptom - an increase in the level of sugar during the study through the blood. Therefore, in order to find out whether diabetes is inherited, it is necessary to take into account its form.

Type 1 diabetes is inherited quite often. This disease occurs as a result of an autoimmune process. This process kills the special cells of the pancreas that produce insulin. As a result, in the end, there is nothing to produce insulin in the body. In this case, only insulin injections can help the patient, that is, administering it from the outside in a carefully calculated dose.

At the moment, almost all the data on how diabetes is transmitted is found out. However, the answers to the questions whether it can be cured and whether it is possible to prevent its development in a child are still negative. Currently, scientists are not able to influence the inheritance from the mother or father of certain diseases, as well as stop autoimmune processes. But an artificial pancreas is being developed - it will be attached externally and automatically calculate the required dose of insulin, and then inject it into the body.

Second type of disease

The answer to the question of whether type 2 diabetes is inherited is also positive. There is a hereditary predisposition to its occurrence. This disease develops when insulin is produced by the pancreas in a normal volume.

However, the insulin receptors in the tissues of the body (mainly fat), which must bind to insulin and transport glucose to cells, do not function or do not function enough. As a result, glucose does not enter the cells, but accumulates in the blood. Cells, however, signal a lack of glucose, which causes the pancreas to produce more insulin. The tendency to low efficiency of receptors and is inherited.

When working in this mode, the pancreas is rapidly depleted. Cells that produce insulin are destroyed. Tissues can be replaced by fibrous. In this case, there is nothing more to produce insulin, and the failure of the second type goes into the first. This is the answer to the question of whether a failure of the first type can occur if it is not inherited from the father or mother.

Inheritance

Diabetes is transmitted along both the female and male lines. The inheritance characteristics are as follows:

  • The first type of diabetes is transmitted from the father in 10% of cases, from the mother in 3 - 7%. It manifests itself in this case in a child no older than 20 years old, usually as a result of stress or a serious illness, i.e., with weakened immunity,
  • When both parents are sick, the probability of having a baby - a diabetic is 70 - 80%. However, if you protect your child from stress and serious illnesses up to 20 years, then he can "outgrow" this type of ailment,
  • The second type of diabetes mellitus can also predetermine heredity. It manifests itself at an older age - after 30 years. Most often transmitted from grandparents, while the probability of transmission from one of the relatives is higher - 30%. If both parents are diabetic, the probability of having a baby with an ailment is 100%,
  • Type 2 diabetes can not only be inherited, but also be acquired as a result of an unhealthy lifestyle,
  • For a failure of the first type, the danger of transmission through the male line, as well as the male child, is higher than female
  • If the illness of the first type was suffered by grandparents, then the probability that their grandchildren will also be sick is 10%. Whereas their parents can get sick with only 3 - 5% probability.

Parents should consider that if one of the twins is diagnosed with diabetes in an insulin-dependent form, then the probability that the second twin is also sick is 50%. When it comes to non-insulin-independent form - 70%.

Disease transmission

Some people also wonder how diabetes is transmitted. Regardless of its type, the only way to transmit this failure is through inheritance. That is, they cannot be infected through blood, it is not transmitted through the physical contact of a sick person with a healthy one.

However, they can get sick not only by inheritance from their parents. Type 2 diabetes occurs on its own. There are several reasons for this:

  1. In old age, the effectiveness of receptors decreases, and they begin to bind worse to insulin,
  2. Obesity leads to the destruction of receptors or their damage, so you need to monitor weight,
  3. The lack of physical activity leads to the fact that glucose is slowly converted into energy and accumulates in the blood,
  4. Bad habits (smoking, alcoholism) disrupt the metabolism and negatively affect the metabolism, which can cause diabetes mellitus,
  5. Improper nutrition - abuse of preservatives, carbohydrates, fats can also increase the likelihood of getting sick.

Mostly hereditary disease, diabetes mellitus can be "acquired" and independently. Therefore, it is worthwhile to carefully consider your health and monitor your lifestyle, especially to those who are at risk for this ailment.

Is diabetes inherited, inheritance mechanisms

Diabetes mellitus is an ailment that affects many people (mostly older). Moreover, women get sick more often than men. There are two forms of the disease - the first and second type. They differ in reasons of occurrence, flow patterns, symptoms and paths of inheritance. It is believed that people whose relatives are diabetic are at higher risk for this disease and should be more careful about their health. So the question is, is diabetes inherited?

Ailments of the first and second type are essentially completely different diseases. They have a different course and different causes. The only thing they have in common is that as a result of the course of pathological diseases, there is one common symptom - an increase in the level of sugar during the study through the blood. Therefore, in order to find out whether diabetes is inherited, it is necessary to take into account its form.

Type 1 diabetes is inherited quite often. This disease occurs as a result of an autoimmune process. This process kills the special cells of the pancreas that produce insulin. As a result, in the end, there is nothing to produce insulin in the body. In this case, only insulin injections can help the patient, that is, administering it from the outside in a carefully calculated dose.

At the moment, almost all the data on how diabetes is transmitted is found out.However, the answers to the questions whether it can be cured and whether it is possible to prevent its development in a child are still negative. Currently, scientists are not able to influence the inheritance from the mother or father of certain diseases, as well as stop autoimmune processes. But an artificial pancreas is being developed - it will be attached externally and automatically calculate the required dose of insulin, and then inject it into the body.

The answer to the question of whether type 2 diabetes is inherited is also positive. There is a hereditary predisposition to its occurrence. This disease develops when insulin is produced by the pancreas in a normal volume.

However, the insulin receptors in the tissues of the body (mainly fat), which must bind to insulin and transport glucose to cells, do not function or do not function enough. As a result, glucose does not enter the cells, but accumulates in the blood. Cells, however, signal a lack of glucose, which causes the pancreas to produce more insulin. The tendency to low efficiency of receptors and is inherited.

When working in this mode, the pancreas is rapidly depleted. Cells that produce insulin are destroyed. Tissues can be replaced by fibrous. In this case, there is nothing more to produce insulin, and the failure of the second type goes into the first. This is the answer to the question of whether a failure of the first type can occur if it is not inherited from the father or mother.

Diabetes is transmitted along both the female and male lines. The inheritance characteristics are as follows:

  • The first type of diabetes is transmitted from the father in 10% of cases, from the mother in 3 - 7%. It manifests itself in this case in a child no older than 20 years old, usually as a result of stress or a serious illness, i.e., with weakened immunity,
  • When both parents are sick, the probability of having a baby - a diabetic is 70 - 80%. However, if you protect your child from stress and serious illnesses up to 20 years, then he can "outgrow" this type of ailment,
  • The second type of diabetes mellitus can also predetermine heredity. It manifests itself at an older age - after 30 years. Most often transmitted from grandparents, while the probability of transmission from one of the relatives is higher - 30%. If both parents are diabetic, the probability of having a baby with an ailment is 100%,
  • Type 2 diabetes can not only be inherited, but also be acquired as a result of an unhealthy lifestyle,
  • For a failure of the first type, the danger of transmission through the male line, as well as the male child, is higher than female
  • If the illness of the first type was suffered by grandparents, then the probability that their grandchildren will also be sick is 10%. Whereas their parents can get sick with only 3 - 5% probability.

Parents should consider that if one of the twins is diagnosed with diabetes in an insulin-dependent form, then the probability that the second twin is also sick is 50%. When it comes to non-insulin-independent form - 70%.

Some people also wonder how diabetes is transmitted. Regardless of its type, the only way to transmit this failure is through inheritance. That is, they cannot be infected through blood, it is not transmitted through the physical contact of a sick person with a healthy one.

However, they can get sick not only by inheritance from their parents. Type 2 diabetes occurs on its own. There are several reasons for this:

  1. In old age, the effectiveness of receptors decreases, and they begin to bind worse to insulin,
  2. Obesity leads to the destruction of receptors or their damage, so you need to monitor weight,
  3. The lack of physical activity leads to the fact that glucose is slowly converted into energy and accumulates in the blood,
  4. Bad habits (smoking, alcoholism) disrupt the metabolism and negatively affect the metabolism, which can cause diabetes mellitus,
  5. Improper nutrition - abuse of preservatives, carbohydrates, fats can also increase the likelihood of getting sick.

Mostly hereditary disease, diabetes mellitus can be "acquired" and independently. Therefore, it is worthwhile to carefully consider your health and monitor your lifestyle, especially to those who are at risk for this ailment.

Diabetes mellitus refers to endocrine chronic diseases. The reason for its appearance is a malfunction in the body's work associated with the absence or insufficient secretion of the hormone insulin or with its non-digestibility by internal tissues. There are 2 main forms of diabetes and a predisposition to the disease can be inherited.

The World Health Organization has identified 2 main types of diabetes. It:

  • Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes. Such a diagnosis is made if insulin is not produced at all or in part (less than 20% of the total).
  • Diabetes mellitus or type 2 diabetes. This is when insulin is produced within the normal range or above it, but due to a decrease in the sensitivity of internal tissues, it is not absorbed in the body.

A disease of these two types affects 97% of the total number of diabetics. The remaining 3% is in the non-sugar type of the disease and other types of disease.

Everyone can get diabetes, in principle, under a special set of circumstances, but there are risk factors that significantly increase the possibility of the manifestation of the disease. These include:

  • Hereditary predisposition
  • Overweight, obesity,
  • Pancreatic diseases and a violation of the normal volume of substances,
  • Inactive lifestyle and sedentary work,
  • Stress and situations in which adrenaline rush occurs,
  • Alcohol abuse
  • Diseases, during which the sensitivity of internal tissues to insulin decreases,
  • Infectious, viral and inflammatory diseases that reduce immunity,
  • Taking medications with a diabetic effect.

And if you can still “fight” with most of these factors, then you can’t argue with genes.

It is impossible to say directly that this disease is inherited. In fact, a predisposition to the development of this form of the disease is transmitted. Not one cell, but a group is responsible for its development. And what is important, both types are transmitted polygenically, that is, without the presence of risk factors, the disease will not manifest itself. In addition, each SD is transmitted individually, and they are independent of each other.

If we consider the percentage, then a risk factor such as heredity will be 60-80% of the total probability of getting sick. And here it is advisable to consider each of the types separately. After all, the diseases are different.

So with type 1 diabetes, there is a likelihood of a manifestation of the disease, even if the parents are absolutely healthy. This is due to the fact that the disease can be transmitted through a generation. The probability of developing an insulin-dependent form of the disease in children will be 5-10%, and for parents only 2-5%. On the male side, the risk will be higher than on the female.

The connection between parents and children is not as strong as between identical twins. The probability of inheriting this type of disease in the presence of T1DM in one of the parents is only 5%, both the father and mother are sick, which means that the risk of getting sick will rise to 21% out of 100 possible. If one of the twins is diabetic, then the likelihood that the second child will be diagnosed with the same diagnosis rises to 50% with an insulin-dependent form and 70% with an insulin-independent form.

When determining the likelihood of developing a disease, one should take into account not only the presence of such a disease in close relatives. The higher the number of diabetic relatives in a person’s environment, the higher the risk of a disease manifesting in him. This pattern is valid only with the condition that everyone has the same form of the disease, that is, only type 1 diabetes or only type 2 diabetes. Gradually, with age, the possibility of developing insulin-dependent diabetes in humans decreases.

If we talk about diabetes of pregnant women, then heredity also plays a role. When observing a high family predisposition to this disease, it can be argued that during the gestation of the baby, somewhere in the 20th week a high blood sugar level can be detected. After giving birth, in most cases it passes without a trace, but in a certain percentage of women it develops into type 1 or type 2 diabetes.

With type 2 diabetes, the likelihood of passing it on to heirs is much higher. So if one of the parents is sick, then the risk of the disease in the child will be 80%.

In the presence of such a diagnosis, both the pope and the mother, the probability of his transition to children increases to 100%.

Overweight will only accelerate the development of the disease.

As it becomes clear from the above material, it is the disease itself that is not inherited. The presence of relatives-diabetics affects the situation and predisposition to the development of the disease, but without external factors, diabetes mellitus may not occur.


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Let me introduce myself. My name is Yelena. I have been working as an endocrinologist for more than 10 years. I believe that I am currently a professional in my field and I want to help all visitors to the site to solve complex and not so tasks. All materials for the site are collected and carefully processed in order to convey as much as possible all the necessary information. Before applying what is described on the website, a mandatory consultation with specialists is always necessary.

Watch the video: Management of Type 1 Diabetes in Children (April 2020).