Pancreatitis and biliary dyskinesia: stages of the disease

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Parasitic infections are quite common. Scientists believe that more than a third of the entire population of our planet are carriers of Giardia - the simplest microscopic organisms that parasitize an advantage in the human small intestine (the photo shows how they look). But these figures cannot be accurate, since in most cases the disease proceeds secretly. The number of infections with giardia is steadily growing, experts who closely study the anatomical and physiological characteristics of giardia, came to the conclusion that they are able to parasitize not only in the small intestine, but also in the gall bladder. How is this possible? Can giardia cause cholecystitis? The answer to this question is in the article.

So, in order to understand whether lamblia can settle in the gallbladder, and cause cholecystitis, it is necessary to talk a little about the physiology of the simplest flagellar microorganisms. They are able to exist in two forms: in the vegetative (active) and in cysts (inactive) form. The first form, in fact, is one cell whose length is 12 microns, width - 7 microns. In shape, it looks like a pear. In the widest part are two cores.

Stage and severity of pathology

Depending on the nature of the course of the abnormal process, the classification of the disease offers three degrees: mild, moderate and severe. With a mild form of the pathological process, seizures in the patient are detected no more than twice a year, they are characterized by a short period of time.

As a rule, exacerbation lies in non-compliance with the recommended nutrition. With pancreatitis, a certain diet is required, excluding fatty, spicy and spicy foods. You also need to arrange an unloading day periodically so that the iron rests.

If pain occurs with a mild form, then it is easy to stop it with the help of medications. After remission sets in, the patient feels well.

The average severity of the pathology is characterized by the following points:

  • An exacerbation attack up to four times a year,
  • The pancreas constantly pulls, there are painful sensations,
  • There are violations of the functionality of the body,
  • Ultrasound shows the structural transformation of the pancreas,
  • The patient is losing weight.

With a severe form of the disease, exocrine and intracecretory insufficiency is detected, the symptoms of exacerbation are pronounced, lasting a long time. The causes include malnutrition, concomitant diseases - cholecystitis, biliary dyskinesia, gastroduodenitis, inflammation of the large duodenal papilla.

Four stages of chronic pancreatitis are distinguished:

  1. Perclinical stage. There is no clinic, the disease is diagnosed by chance with the help of laboratory tests and instrumental diagnostics.
  2. In the second stage, an adult has moderate girdle pain, dyspeptic symptoms are absent. Such a stage can last 5-10 years, during this time period periods of exacerbation and remission are detected.
  3. At the third stage, the clinic is constantly present. An increase in pain, dyspeptic manifestations is noted, endocrine and exocrine insufficiency is diagnosed.
  4. At the fourth stage, pancreatic atrophy is detected, and diabetes mellitus develops. The transformation of the disease into an oncological process is not ruled out.

If you find the first characteristic signs, you should consult a doctor. The disease requires competent diagnosis and timely treatment.

Forms of pathology

Several forms of chronic pancreatitis are distinguished. The parenchymal type of the disease is accompanied by a disorder of the secretory functionality of the pancreas. Damage to the gland channels is not observed, stones are absent. Feature - slow progression, the clinic is often worn out, it is difficult to diagnose.

What is pancreatic dyskinesia? Such a disease does not exist, with biliary dyskinesia, compression of the bile ducts occurs, against which the muscles of the bladder and bile ducts work inferiorly, which provokes pancreatitis.

Reactive pancreatitis is not an independent disease. Pathology occurs due to a malfunction of nearby organs - ulcerative lesions of the stomach, duodenum, cholecystitis.

There is no such thing as hereditary pancreatitis. However, it is used by medical specialists when members of the same family are diagnosed with this disease for no apparent reason. At the moment, scientists associate the pathogenesis of pathology with a specific genetic defect.

Pancreatic injury can lead to problems with the body, as a result of which post-traumatic pancreatitis is diagnosed. On palpation of the projection of the organ, a large one complains of pain, there are dyspeptic symptoms and other clinics inherent in pancreatitis. A traumatic illness is treated similarly to an acute form of the disease.

Other types of acute pancreatitis:

  • Alimentary pancreatitis occurs due to the consumption of fatty and spicy foods, alcoholic type of the disease can also be attributed to it,
  • Gastrogenic develops due to pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract,
  • The etiology of the ischemic type is due to blockage of blood vessels by blood clots or atherosclerotic plaques,
  • Biliary pancreatitis - damage to the biliary tract,
  • Infectious type. Causes - viral hepatitis, mumps,
  • An allergic or toxic appearance is caused by exposure to heavy metals, dyes, solvents, and certain medications.

Colitis with pancreatitis develops due to malnutrition. The disease is accompanied by inflammation of the mucous membrane of the colon. Symptoms: aching pain, increased gas, rumbling in the abdomen. In feces there is a blood admixture. Interestingly, inflammation of the pancreas can provoke colitis, and vice versa, colitis leads to pancreatitis.

The consequences of any form of the disease: baldness (due to nutritional deficiencies), pancreatic necrosis, retroperitoneal phlegmon, pancreatic fistula, bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract.

Treatment of pancreatitis depending on the stage

A pancreatologist may recommend conservative or surgical treatment if the patient has an acute attack of pancreatic inflammation. When the cause of an exacerbation is inflammation of the gallbladder, the doctor may recommend cholecystomy - resection of the gallbladder.

Inflammation of the gallbladder often leads to problems with the pancreas. When this organ is removed by surgery, the symptoms of pancreatitis die out.

The absolute indication for surgery is pancreatic necrosis. The choice of surgical technique depends on the condition of the patient, the clinical form of the pathology. Against the background of the aseptic nature of pancreatic necrosis, laparotomy is never performed, since there is a high risk of infection of organs, the development of intraperitoneal bleeding.

Laparotomy is a modern treatment method that is performed in the following situations:

  1. Infected cysts and pseudocysts.
  2. Phlegmon retroperitoneal fiber.
  3. Peritonitis.
  4. Abscess.

After the intervention, the patient is in the intensive care unit for some time, then he is transferred to the surgical department. The patient lies in the hospital for about a month, where he receives proper treatment. In the future, you must follow a diet.

Treatment of chronic pancreatitis is aimed at prolonging the stage of remission, respectively, preventing a possible exacerbation. Taking medications against the background of the disease helps to eliminate various problems:

  • Therapy of pain. To stop the pain, the patient is given No-shpa tablets, Papaverine. You can not use Aspirin, Nise, and other anti-inflammatory drugs, since they help thin the blood, irritate the gastrointestinal mucosa,
  • Prescribe Polysorb for pancreatitis - an enterosorbent that binds toxic components in the body and removes them,
  • Suppress pancreatic secretion. Proton pump inhibitors are used - Omez, Contrical,
  • Substitution treatment involves reducing the load on the pancreas. They use drugs with digestive enzymes - Festal, Mezim, Pancreon, Pancreasim,
  • Antibiotics are recommended only if there is a bacterial infection. Prescribe Amoxiclav, Ampioks,
  • In case of disturbance of the water and electrolyte balance, replacement therapy with saline and physiological solutions is required.

Patients with a chronic form of the disease during remission need to follow a diet. Lipids are limited in the menu and include protein-rich foods in the diet. Spicy and fatty foods, alcoholic beverages, coffee, coarse fiber, soda, and confectionery are prohibited.

An expert in the video in this article will talk about pancreatitis.

Methods of treatment and diagnosis of biliary dyskinesia

The diagnosis of biliary dyskinesia means a whole complex of certain pathological disorders of the biliary system that occur as a result of malfunctions of the motor function of the gallbladder and its ducts. In this case, changes in the organic type are not present. With this pathological condition, an excessive or deficient contraction of the gallbladder is noted.

Description of the disease

The female part of the population is more prone to dyskinesia, in which the disease is diagnosed 10 times more often. The disease is characterized by the absence of bile into the duodenum in the required amount, due to which painful sensations arise in the right hypochondrium.

There are several reasons that can cause biliary dyskinesia. Some of them may be impaired functioning of the liver organ and pathways that remove bile. As a result of malnutrition, inflammation of the regulatory system develops, which is made up of the liver and gall bladder, which provokes a violation of the motility of the biliary tract.

The abuse of alcohol, fatty and spicy foods negatively affects normal metabolic processes. Thus, the load on the liver increases, which negatively affects the work of the liver and other digestive organs.

A direct role in the development of biliary dyskinesia is played by the stress factor. Nervous disorders lead to spasm of the gallbladder and its ducts, resulting in an excess ejection of bile into the 12 duodenal ulcer.

Excess bile enters the pancreas, thereby blocking the movement of pancreatic fluid, which has a corrosive effect on the body, which provokes the occurrence of pancreatitis with subsequent complication in the form of diabetes mellitus.

As factors conducive to the occurrence of biliary dyskinesia, are:

  • hereditary predisposition
  • past diseases, which include hepatitis of viral origin,
  • neurosis
  • intestinal dysbiosis,
  • infectious lesions of the respiratory tract,
  • food allergic reactions,
  • digestive tract diseases that are inflammatory in nature,
  • endocrine type disorders,
  • parasitic pathogens.

Dyskinesia is presented in two varieties:

  1. According to the hypokinetic type. In this case, the gallbladder is in a relaxed state, which leads to its poor contraction, stretching and increase in volume, as a result of which there is gall stasis, as well as a pathological change in its composition, which is dangerous by the formation of calculi in the gallbladder. This type of dyskinesia is much more common.
  2. By hyperkinetic type. The bile organ is in a constant tone, responding sharply to the entry of food into the lumen of the duodenum 12 by sharp contractions, while under the influence of strong pressure it throws out excess bile.

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In accordance with the detected type, the signs of biliary dyskinesia are distinguished:

  • pain and heaviness in the right side,
  • stool disorders, when constipation alternates with loose stools,
  • impaired appetite
  • pain
  • unstable body weight
  • burping, leaving a taste of bitterness in the oral cavity,
  • general malaise.

2. Hypokinetic form:

  • soreness of the aching nature, localized in the right hypochondrium,
  • a feeling of heaviness in the stomach
  • constantly present nauseous urge,
  • gag reflexes.

3. Hyperkinetic form:

  • acute pain, making itself felt in episodes in the right region of the hypochondrium and giving in the dorsal and sewing areas. Basically, the duration of such pains is about half an hour, and their occurrence is caused by food intake,
  • persistent nausea
  • gall emetic reflex,
  • poor appetite
  • general weakness, accompanied by pain in the head.

With biliary dyskinesia, symptoms significantly reduce the quality of life, worsening overall well-being. Often patients with biliary dyskinesia consult a dermatologist with symptoms of dermatitis. However, skin rashes also indicate problems with the functioning of the digestive tract. Indirect signs may occur in:

  • itchy skin sensations
  • dryness and peeling of the skin.

The appearance of bubble rashes containing a water base is possible.

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Diagnostics

In order to detect biliary dyskinesia, laboratory and instrumental studies are prescribed. However, the latest diagnostic methods are more informative:

1. Ultrasound

An ultrasound examination of the gallbladder for an adult and a child is performed with a choleretic breakfast. First, at the end of a three-day diet, a normal ultrasound of the peritoneal cavity is performed, through which the following changes in the biliary tract are detected:

An examination is also carried out for the presence of gallstones. After that, foods are taken that provoke the release of bile into the duodenum 12. It can be dairy products, chocolate or bananas. Thus, it becomes clear how and in what sequence the movement of bile occurs.

2. Cholecystography

In this case, two methods of contrast radiography are used:

  • cholecystography, in which extrahepatic bile ducts are examined. This method involves oral administration of a contrast agent, which subsequently allows you to identify how the contrast reaches the gallbladder, leaves it,
  • cholangiography, when the bile ducts inside the liver are examined. In this case, the contrast agent is injected when the substance reaches directly the bile ducts. Subsequently, the progress of contrast along the bile ducts is monitored.

3. Cholescintigraphy

Such a diagnostic method relates to radiological research, in which a radioisotope preparation is injected into the body, after which, in the light of special radiation, its passage into the liver and excretion into the bile ducts are visualized.

4. Duodenal sounding

It is carried out by evaluating portions of the contents of the duodenum 12. To this end, research is being done in which it becomes necessary to swallow a thin probe. Upon reaching the duodenal ulcer, its contents are taken, which consists of bile, liquid and juice.

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Subsequently, choleretic drugs are introduced into the probe during biliary dyskinesia in the form of sulfate magnesia. Thus, there is a contraction of the gall bladder, and the bile contained in the organ enters the intestine, which is also taken for the purpose of research.

After a certain time, bile flows here, previously located in the bile ducts inside the liver. Such a sample is also taken for analysis. For the purpose of diagnosis, the time interval between the administration of the choleretic drug and the receipt of portions of the samples is important.

The content of various lipids in portions taken last is also important.

With confirmation of biliary dyskinesia, a complex treatment is prescribed, which consists in:

  • normalization of the regime and nature of nutrition,
  • sanitation of infectious foci,
  • elimination of intestinal dysbiosis and hypovitaminosis,
  • getting rid of dysfunctional symptoms.

Medication

In many ways, how to treat biliary dyskinesia corresponds to the form of the disease:

Such a course of the disease requires the restriction of mechanical and chemical food irritants and fats. Table # 5 is becoming relevant, which is enriched with products containing magnetic salts. In order to relieve spasm of smooth muscles, apply:

  • nitrates
  • antispasmodics of myotropic action,
  • anticholinergic drugs
  • nifedipine, which helps reduce sphincter tone.

Also applies table # 5. The diet should be rich in vegetable and fruit products, as well as products containing fiber of vegetable origin and magnesium salts.

Equally important in therapy is the timely emptying of the intestine, for which vegetable oils and creams should be used.

In order to normalize the functioning of the intestine, which automatically stimulates the contraction of the gallbladder, cholekinetics are prescribed.

Physiotherapy

Often, treatment of biliary dyskinesia is carried out through physiotherapeutic procedures:

  • low pulse currents
  • low intensity ultrasonic irradiation,
  • pearl and carbon baths.

Diet food

The basis of successful therapeutic tactics of biliary dyskinesia is a diet, in the absence of which other methods of treatment become useless. Proper nutrition helps to create favorable conditions for the normal functioning of the digestive tract, as well as bringing the bile ducts to normal:

  • banned are bitter, spicy and fried foods,
  • limited consumption of various seasonings and spices,
  • the use of fats is strictly prohibited. It can be replaced with vegetable oils,
  • it is forbidden to take on potentially harmful products that can irritate the digestive system,
  • at the very beginning of treatment, food is used in semi-liquid form and warm temperature conditions, which is especially important in the presence of pain attacks,
  • before use, dishes are cooked, steamed, stewed and baked in foil.

Preventive measures

In order to prevent the development of pathology, the following rules must be observed:

  • stick to a full night sleep mode lasting 8 hours,
  • departure for sleep no later than 11 a.m.
  • alternation of mental and physical activity,
  • frequent walks in the fresh air with a long duration,
  • good nutrition with the use of plant-based foods, cereals,
  • restriction of high fat fried foods,
  • the exception of situations causing a serious traumatic effect on the mental state.

Secondary preventive measures are the early detection of dyskinesia, which becomes possible in the case of regular preventive examinations. JVP is not capable of influencing life expectancy, but significantly affects its quality.

Pancreatitis and biliary dyskinesia: stages of the disease

Pancreatic inflammation is acute and chronic. Each of them is accompanied by specific pathological changes that occur in the tissues of the affected organ.

The chronic form of the disease develops after an acute attack of the disease. It is inherent in a sluggish inflammatory process, which provokes a violation of the organ. Moreover, even if the source of the problem is removed, the destructive process does not stop.

In medical practice, different forms of the disease are distinguished, due to the etiological factor, morphological signs, clinical manifestations, and other aspects on the basis of which the diagnosis is made.

Let's look at the forms and stages of pancreatitis, find out what to do if the pancreas twitches, and what treatment is needed?

How gallbladder dyskinesia affects the pancreas: a latent danger of pathology

Dyskinesia of the gallbladder is a functional violation of its motility, which leads to uncoordinated actions of the organs of the gastrointestinal tract.

If normally the secretion of bile into the duodenum occurs in response to food intake, then with the development of pathology this process has a spontaneous nature.

Untimely ingestion of bile into the intestine leads to a decrease in its bactericidal activity, resulting in a quantitative change in the composition of microflora.

The pathological entry of bile into the intestinal lumen is called dyskinesia

This inconsistency provokes digestive upset and leads to a violation of the function of the pancreas, leading to pancreatitis.

What is the danger of dyskinesia

The digestion of food, the breakdown of nutrients and their transformation into a form that is absorbed in the intestine, is carried out using bile, gastric and pancreatic juice. Bile breaks down fat molecules into simple components, and then pancreatic enzymes transform them into fatty acids used by body tissues.

The optimal speed of movement of bile through the bile ducts is ensured by compression and relaxation of the sphincters, controlled by hormones of the stomach and pancreas.

Acceleration of the movement of bile leads to a decrease in concentration, and a decrease in this indicator increases and inhibits its entry into the intestine. In both cases, a hormonal imbalance occurs, which entails the development of pathologies of the intestine, gall bladder and pancreas.

Hypokinetic dyskinesia

Hypomotor dysfunction is associated with a decrease in the contractile ability of the smooth muscles of the bile ducts, which leads to insufficient intake of bile into the duodenum.

This pathology in most cases develops in women after forty years in connection with hormonal changes preceding menopause. Also hypokinetic dyskinesia is prone to people with an unstable psyche who are very emotionally react to stress factors.

This is due to the fact that during stress, the activity of the sympathetic nervous system, which maintains the tone of smooth muscles of the digestive tract, decreases.

Symptoms of the disease are:

  • prolonged aching pain in the right hypochondrium, the intensity of which decreases after eating or drugs with a choleretic effect,
  • the appearance of bitterness and an unpleasant odor in the oral cavity,
  • nausea, causing a decrease or lack of appetite,
  • diarrhea, alternating with constipation,
  • increased urination.

With the further development of this form of dyskinesia, the urine acquires a dark shade, and the feces brighten. Itchy skin and yellowing of the mucous membranes, cornea of ​​the eye and upper layers of the skin appear.

In severe cases of dyskinesia, yellowing of the skin and mucous membranes occurs

In most cases, the onset of symptoms of a hypokinetic form is preceded by severe stress, prolonged emotional stress, starvation or eating large amounts of food with a predominance of fats.

The lack of treatment and the elimination of the causes of the disease leads to:

  • decreased performance
  • insomnia
  • violation of the heart and respiratory rhythm,
  • frequent headaches
  • sweating
  • a menstrual failure in women,
  • the occurrence of problems with potency in men.

The pancreas reacts to hypotonic DZHVP by lowering the level of enzymes and hormones, which can trigger the development of diabetes mellitus.

Can there be giardia in the gallbladder?

The body of trophozoites (the vegetative form of giardia) is equipped with several pairs of flagella. With the help of them, lamblia move along the intestinal lumen. When they descend lower to the colon, under the action of bile, trophozoites turn into cysts. As can be seen in the photo, they are more like spores than eggs. Cysts are much smaller than trophozoites, in contrast to them have an oval shape. They have no flagella, so the cysts are motionless. On top of the spores are covered with a strong protective shell, which helps the lamblia survive in the external environment. Cysts are able to maintain their viability at temperatures from +4 to +20 degrees for three months. But the process of boiling and exposure to ultraviolet light, freezing at a temperature of -13 degrees lamblia kills. Bile is also detrimental to them. But why recently have more and more symptoms come to light that indicate the presence of giardia in the gallbladder? How is this possible? Why can giardia provoke cholecystitis?

It is noted that violations of the bactericidal properties of bile can lead to such a neighborhood. This happens with diseases of the liver and organs of the biliary system. The simplest flagellar microorganisms cannot get into the bubble itself. But to settle in the ducts, to get there through the Vater papillae - they can do it. In addition, during prolonged parasitization, lamblia form suitable conditions for themselves. It is this process that provokes biliary dyskinesia with giardiasis. As a result, a dangerous complication in the form of chronic cholecystitis, significantly worsening the patient's quality of life.

Hyperkinetic dyskinesia

Hypertensive biliary dyskinesia develops due to an increase in the tone of the parasympathetic nervous system and is characterized by a violation of the rhythm of the flow of bile into the intestine. This occurs with frequent contraction of the sphincters of the bile ducts and the walls of the bile duct.

An uncontrolled release of bile acids during the absence of food particles in the intestinal lumen leads to constant irritation of its walls. But on the other hand, incoming bile does not contain the necessary amount of acids, which provide complete breakdown of fats.

As a result of combining these two factors occurs:

  • the development of pathogenic microflora in the intestine due to a decrease in the antibacterial properties of bile,
  • the formation of inflammatory processes in the stomach and small intestine,
  • flatulence caused by increased fermentation processes during stagnation of food,
  • throwing bile into the stomach,
  • the formation of stones in the bile duct due to stagnation of bile.

Symptoms of such changes are:

  • paroxysmal short pain after eating or physical activity, localized in the right hypochondrium,
  • heartburn,
  • bloating
  • nausea accompanied by vomiting
  • lethargy,
  • diarrhea,
  • the appearance in the language of plaque, which has a pronounced yellow tint.

Constant nausea and frequent vomiting may indicate the development of dyskinesia of gastrointestinal tract and pancreatitis

If inflammation of the pancreas develops against the background of the hypertensive form of dyskinesia, then an increase in body temperature occurs, attacks of pain become longer, giving away under the scapula or to the navel.

Important! A characteristic sign indicating the development of pancreatitis is the lack of relief after vomiting. This should be reported to the doctor during the description of the signs of pathology, as this will help to quickly make the correct diagnosis and begin treatment.

Complications of Dyskinesia

Complications of gut dyskinesia with pancreatitis accompanied by colic

In the absence of treatment and changes in the way of eating, the attacks of DZhVP will become more frequent. Ultimately, this will lead to the development of the highest stage of the pain syndrome - colic, in which pain is not relieved by non-steroidal analgesics, and urgent hospitalization of the patient is necessary.

Other equally serious consequences of the advanced form of dyskinesia include the formation of stones in the gallbladder and the development of an acute form of pancreatitis.

According to statistics, pancreatitis, the root cause of which was dysfunction of the bile ducts, is more difficult than inflammation caused by other etiological factors.

Important! Treatment of pathology of the pancreas without eliminating violations of the bile duct does not bring results.

To prevent the development of complications will help early diagnosis of the disease, compliance with the rules of a healthy diet and mastery of relaxation methods that allow less emotional response to stress.

Characteristic symptoms of gallbladder and pancreas diseases

Symptoms of gallbladder and pancreas disease are very similar. Moreover, often diseases of these organs occur together, complementing and provoking each other.

In general, both joint diseases and diseases of each organ individually are quite dangerous pathologies that are fraught with serious consequences.

In case of manifestation of biliary symptoms, you should consult a specialist as soon as possible, because only he can determine the pathology and clarify its localization.

Specificity of organs

Although the gall bladder and pancreas perform various functions in the digestive system, they can significantly affect each other.

The pancreas provides the production of pancreatic juice, rich in enzymes and hormones (insulin and glucagon), secreted into the blood. With the development of the inflammatory process in this gland, the outflow of produced enzymes is disrupted.

Their excess enters the lumen of the gallbladder, which causes the spread of the inflammatory reaction to this organ (cholecystitis).

Gallbladder disease

Gallbladder diseases are caused by the following main pathologies: the formation of stones in the organ, the inflammatory process on stenotic tissues, dyskinesia of the excretory canals, tumor formations, polyps.

Gallstone disease is characterized by the appearance of stony formations in the bladder or ducts.

Stones are solid crystals formed from cholesterol and calcium salts bound by a bile component - bilirubin.

  • excessive body weight
  • metabolic disturbance,
  • malnutrition
  • some diseases.

Signs of disease appear depending on the number and size of the stones. For a long time, they may not make themselves felt.At the beginning of their movement, hepatic colic occurs - severe, sharp pains in the hypochondrium on the right with a return to the right shoulder blade and arm. Attacks of pain are accompanied by nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, weakness.

Treatment of the disease is most often carried out surgically. But with a small size of the stones, ultrasonic and chemical crushing is used. In the latter case, the following drugs are used: Henochol, Henosan, Urosan, Ursodiol, etc. Cholecystitis is an inflammation of the walls of the gallbladder, causing a violation of the outflow of bile and the appearance of microflora in the lumen of the duct.

The main causes of the disease:

  • the development of gallstone disease,
  • casting pancreatic juice from the pancreas,
  • violation of blood circulation in the walls of the bladder.

There are two forms: acute and chronic cholecystitis. The acute form of the disease manifests itself in the form of the following symptoms:

  • attacks of pain with localization in the right half of the abdomen, extending to the right shoulder blade and shoulder,
  • vomiting and nausea
  • chills,
  • fever
  • itchy skin
  • signs of jaundice.

The chronic form of the disease develops slowly, but is accompanied by periods of exacerbation. Quite often, a bacterial infection becomes the cause of the development of this form.

Biliary dyskinesia is a violation of the motor function of the bladder and its ducts. The disease is characterized by an abnormal contraction of the gallbladder and inconsistency in the regulation of the flow of bile into the ducts.

The main provoking causes of pathology are psycho-traumatic factors, stress, allergic reactions.

The disease causes pain in the hypochondrium on the right, and the pain is aching in nature and can last several days. At the same time, cases were noted when the pain was in the nature of an acute short-term attack. Other signs are also characteristic: fatigue, poor mood, insomnia, lack of appetite.

Tumors in the gallbladder can be benign and malignant. The main variety of benign formations are polyps.

They develop almost asymptomatically, but have the main danger - the ability to grow into a malignant form when overgrown. The main symptom of a malignant tumor is jaundice with a tendency to increase manifestation.

In the developed stages, pain, noticeable weight loss, skin itching are detected. The only treatment is surgery.

The gall bladder is the accumulator and dispenser of bile. It is he who provides its supply to the intestines. A disease of this organ, such as an obstruction of the bile ducts, causes bile to seep into the ducts of the pancreas, which causes biliary pancreatitis.

This inflammatory disease is the result of exposure to bile on glandular tissue. Thus, both of these organs have a significant impact on each other in terms of the development of pathologies.

It is not surprising that very often their diseases occur simultaneously, and the symptoms of the diseases are very similar.

Pancreatic disease

Pancreatic diseases are most often associated with an inflammatory reaction, tumor processes, the development of cysts (pseudocysts) and the appearance of stones in the parenchyma.

The main disease of the pancreas of an inflammatory nature is pancreatitis, which is the result of activation of proteolytic enzymes. There are 2 forms of the disease: acute and chronic. The first is based on the development of necrosis and gland dystrophy with the addition of a secondary purulent infection to the process.

An important symptom is severe pain in the upper abdomen with a return to the side, back, hypochondrium, lower back, but most often in the form of piercing pain from the epigastric zone to the back with a shift to the left. Conventional painkillers do not eliminate pain. The next most important symptom is profuse vomiting with the release of bile, mucus, and a greenish tint liquid.

  • delayed feces and gases,
  • cold sweat,
  • blue skin,
  • weak but rapid pulse
  • elevated temperature (up to + 38.5 ° C),
  • shortness of breath, frequent breathing cycles.

A pancreatic attack can occur unexpectedly at any time of the day, most often after eating fatty foods or drinking alcoholic beverages.

In the case of the development of the chronic form, the symptoms are less pronounced than in the acute course. Iron does not produce the required amount of enzymes, which causes chronic digestive upsets even during remission.

Pain and signs of intoxication join the symptoms of indigestion during an exacerbation.

In the chronic development of pathology, Langerhans cells producing insulin and glucagon are gradually replaced by connective tissue, as a result of which pronounced signs of type 1 diabetes mellitus appear.

Cyst formation

The cyst in the pancreas looks like a capsule filled with a liquid composition. Such formations can appear anywhere in the gland and, as a rule, are the result of an acute attack of pancreatitis.

At the initial stage, they do not manifest themselves, but as they grow, they begin to exert a compression effect on nearby organs. This process provokes the following symptoms: pain in the upper abdomen, digestion failures, weight loss.

The main treatment is surgery.

Stones in the pancreas are rarely detected and occur in the head. Symptom of their appearance in the parenchyma is pain in the upper abdomen, extending to the back. The pain syndrome can have a character of an attack with amplification shortly after a meal. If a stone moves into the bile duct, signs of obstructive jaundice are noticeable.

In general, if you compare the main symptoms of diseases of the pancreas and gall bladder, you can see a lot of similarities. Symptoms of pathologies can occur in a patient at the same time. Only a specialist can establish the real clinical picture after conducting appropriate examinations. Self-medication can cause a negative effect.

Pancreatic dyskinesia in a child

Dyskinesia is a violation of the function of the biliary tract, in which the muscles of the gallbladder and bile ducts do not work correctly. Such a pathology leads to a violation of the timely entry of bile into the duodenum.

There is no concept of pancreatic dyskinesia, although its diseases can provoke biliary dysfunction. But there is such a functional disease of the pancreas as dyskinesia of the Vater's nipple. This is a disorder of the motor of the sphincter of the pancreatic duct.

It manifests itself as a pain syndrome similar to inflammation of the pancreas - dull, paroxysmal, girdle pains are felt in the upper abdomen. The problem may arise due to the consumption of certain foods, significant physical exertion, as well as with a viral infection.

The attack lasts no more than 3 hours, during which time pain from the upper abdomen can spread to the back and chest.

In addition to recurring pancreatic pains, this pathology is characterized by an increase in the concentration of amylase and blood lipase by 1.5-2 times. Ultrasound examination reveals an expansion of the pancreatic duct to 3-5 mm.

Pancreatitis and biliary dyskinesia (DZHVP)

Biliary dyskinesia is considered to be one of the key causes of the development of dangerous forms of pancreatitis. Violation of the stable functioning of the biliary tract leads to a general hormonal imbalance of the body and a sharp deterioration in the patient's condition. In addition, it provokes the development of severe complications associated with the expansion of the pancreatic duct.

Pancreatitis, one of the causes of which was biliary dyskinesia, proceeds in more complex forms than inflammation caused by other pathological disorders. The reason for this is the insufficient intake of bile into the duodenum, as a result of which the patient experiences severe pain in the right hypochondrium and constant nausea.

For high-quality treatment of the acute form of pancreatitis, it is necessary, first of all, to eliminate the disruption of the biliary tract, and only then proceed to the treatment of the underlying disease. Otherwise, treatment will not bring a positive result.

Does it still seem to you that curing pancreatitis is difficult?

Judging by the fact that you are reading these lines now, a victory in the fight against pancreatitis is not yet on your side.

And have you already thought about surgery? It is understandable, because the pancreas is a very important organ, and its proper functioning is the key to health and well-being. Frequent abdominal pain, weakness, dizziness, bloating, nausea, stool disturbance. All these symptoms are familiar to you firsthand.

But is it possible to treat the cause rather than the effect? We recommend reading the story of Irina Kravtsova. how she got rid of pancreatitis forever.

Biliary dyskinesia in children

Periodically, some children have acute digestive disorders. Often the disease goes away quickly enough, but in my memory there have been cases when a child was hospitalized and had to be treated for a long time.

To begin with, I will describe a case in life that happened to me recently. The example is very revealing, and I think many will be interested. Recently, one mother brought her little girl of five years old to me at the reception.

The following symptoms were observed in the child:

  • complaints of abdominal pain for several days,
  • nausea and vomiting twice
  • once very light, unformed chair.

Similar attacks in a child occur several times during the year. What then to do? Most likely, this situation is associated with impaired motility of the gallbladder - biliary dyskinesia.

Identification of the cause

The doctor immediately begs the question: what did the child eat on the eve of the attack? What hurt? Parents often shrug. However, if you start to question in detail, then, as a rule, interesting things are clarified.

A cake, pancakes, kebabs and many other options of “heavy”, fatty, indigestible food can appear on the list of the food eaten the day before.

The fact that for us often, unfortunately, is the usual food for a small child, can turn into a disaster.

The baby’s digestive tract, at times, cannot cope with similar foods - the baby simply doesn’t have enough enzymes to digest such food.

What enzymes are there, he is really not always capable of chewing something like that.

Further events unfold simply: first of all, the gall bladder, pancreas cannot cope with the situation, and behind them the rest of the digestive system. So similar complaints appear.

Ultrasound of the liver, gall bladder, pancreas

In terms of examination, it is worth starting with an ultrasound of the liver, gall bladder, pancreas. When conducting an ultrasound examination, as a rule, certain deviations from the gallbladder are revealed:

  • wall compaction,
  • sometimes - sediment in the cavity of the gallbladder,
  • there may be excesses or deformations. Reactive changes are often identified.
  • pancreas.

According to the results of the study, the diagnosis is made: biliary dyskinesia, reactive changes in the pancreas.

In my opinion, it is not necessary to attach excessive importance to the presence of deformation of the gallbladder. In itself, the inflection, deformation of the gallbladder is not a 100% guarantee of the development of the disease of this organ.

Very often, conducting an ultrasound study for another reason, they find similar deviations, but a person has no problems.

Sometimes the deformation of the gallbladder really complicates the outflow of bile, but here is how much - you need to understand in each case.

Determination of gallbladder contractility

Often, the doctor insists on conducting an ultrasound determination of the contractility of the gallbladder. What it is? The gallbladder volume is measured strictly on an empty stomach, that is, you must not only eat, but also drink and brush your teeth before that. Then the so-called “load” is given.

It can be yolks, chocolate, cheese, sour cream, or other similar options. Then, after a certain time, the volume of the gallbladder is again determined and the dynamics of its contraction judge the contractility of the gallbladder. In the medical environment, there is debate about the appropriateness of this examination.

It should be noted that its result is very approximate and depends on many short-term conditions. Here the role and the general well-being of the child, and his mood, and, possibly, even the weather, play a role.

In any case, it is often possible to formulate an opinion on the work of the gallbladder based on indirect, but fairly reliable signs that are part of the standard study protocol.

Additional research

In addition to ultrasound, the doctor may suggest you do the following tests: a coprological examination (feces for digestibility analysis), urine tests for diastasis (see how much the pancreas is irritated), sometimes it is worth making a clinical and biochemical blood test.

Gastroscopy may be necessary, but this study is best done strictly according to the indications, without abusing it.

Treatment of biliary dyskinesia

Let's start with the power system. In treatment, the most important thing is to organize nutrition, sometimes this is already enough. With biliary dyskinesia, the doctor must first unload the child in the diet to give the digestive system rest. To do this, you must follow a certain diet. You can drink water, but with food it is better to wait a bit.

Medicines used in the treatment of biliary dyskinesia

The list of drugs listed below will allow you to have an idea about the drugs, more precisely the groups of drugs that are prescribed for the treatment of biliary dyskinesia. But, given the nature of the clinical manifestations, other types of drugs can be used.

  • enzymes (in my opinion, a good choice is mezim-forte and creon,
  • antispasmodics (no-shpa, duspatalin)
  • a little later choleretic drugs are prescribed,
  • with persistent vomiting, Motilium is used,
  • in one form or another, solutions are used that interfere with the development of dehydration.

After relief of exacerbation, it is often good to use choleretic drugs, including choleretic herbs (such as immortelle, corn stigmas, yarrow, etc.).

If necessary, hepatoprotectors are prescribed to improve the functioning of the liver cells (Essential Forte N, Carsil, and other milk thistle preparations, hofitol). In some cases, the appointment of ursodeoxycholic acid preparations (ursofalk) is indicated.

Also shown are courses of mineral waters, spa treatment. In the future, follow-up of follow-up observation with repeated courses of anti-relapse treatment is shown.

Dyskinesia in children. Symptoms

Dyskinesia refers to diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, in particular to such an organ as the liver. The term "dyskinesia" means a violation of the contractions of the gallbladder and its bile ducts.

What subsequently leads to a violation of the outflow of bile. This disease affects everyone, both adults and children.

Moreover, in children it is quite common, but this disease is rarely detected at an early age.

Most often, dyskinesia in children is a secondary disease.That is, it manifests itself after such diseases, for example, as a stomach ulcer, inflammation of the pancreas, gastroduodenitis. In a child’s body, this disease is much easier to cure than in an adult.

Dyskinesia in children # 8212, causes

In fact, there are a lot of reasons for dyskinesia.

This can be various diseases of the digestive tract, previous infections, intoxication of the body, food allergies, heredity, cholecystitis, helminthic invasion.

Also, causes include a violation of the nervous system, serious stressful situations, which at first glance, have nothing to do with dyskinesia.

Symptoms of dyskinesia in children

It is not difficult for parents to notice dyskinesia in children. Symptoms of the disease are as follows: a child who suffers from dyskinesia often complains of abdominal pain. Most often, he cannot explain the place of pain and character.

Pain is disturbed in different ways, maybe several times a day, and maybe several times a week. Particularly acute, the child feels pain when walking fast or running. The use of sweet or fatty foods can also provoke the manifestation of pain.

In addition, a bitter taste in the mouth or nausea, constipation or diarrhea can join the pain, while the color of the stool becomes clay. The child loses his appetite, headaches, fatigue, lethargy, flatulence appear.

With light pressure on the liver, children feel unpleasant pain. When probing the liver, you can even notice its not a strong increase.

Gallbladder Symptoms

What symptoms can indicate the presence of giardia in the gallbladder and the development of cholecystitis? Giardiasis of any form has no specific signs. The clinical picture of the intestinal form has the same manifestations as any other disease of the gastrointestinal tract. Patients may complain of the following manifestations of dyspepsia:

  1. Unstable chair.
  2. Nausea and vomiting.
  3. Strong flatulence.
  4. Pain, which is localized in the navel, in the upper part of the anterior wall of the peritoneum.

The chronic course of the disease leads to the appearance of symptoms of general intoxication of the body. Lamblia vital products form a large amount of toxins. They, being absorbed into the blood, give impetus to the development of allergic reactions. In children, the listed manifestations are expressed more clearly and intensely, in adult patients, the intestinal form is able to proceed without any manifestations at all. When giardia enters the gallbladder, two scenarios are possible:

  • Dyskinesia of the ducts with spasm becomes possible. The main sign of biliary dyskinesia is a dull, bursting pain, which is permanent. It occurs in the right hypochondrium, but the patient cannot indicate a clear localization of painful sensations. Pain during damage to the ducts of the gallbladder and during cholecystitis intensifies during eating and subsides a little after eating. After eating, with the described pathology, a strong belching with a characteristic unpleasant odor appears. Eating fatty foods leads to vomiting. In the morning, the patient has bitterness in his mouth. In between meals, the patient is tormented by flatulence, diarrhea with lesions of the gallbladder is rare, but constipation is a constant concern.
  • Or atony of Vater papilla.

Confirm the presence of giardia in the gallbladder and the development of cholecystitis helps certain diagnostic procedures, such as stool analysis, analysis of duodenal contents and bile, ultrasound, duodenal sounding, FEGDS. When the diagnosis is confirmed, appropriate treatment is carried out.

Features of the treatment of giardiasis of the gallbladder

Treatment of giardiasis of the gallbladder, like cholecystitis, is reduced to the restoration of the functions of the gastrointestinal tract and undermined immunity. It consists of several stages.

  • First, the patient is “planted” on a special diet that can create adverse conditions for the life of lamblia inside the human body (and gall bladder, respectively).
  • Then, with the help of medications, the symptoms that form the clinical picture of giardiasis are eliminated. Enterosorbents, enzyme preparations, probiotics and hepatoprotectors are prescribed to the patient.
  • After this, treatment is carried out that can eliminate giardia (to kill the simplest flagellar microorganisms living in the intestines and ducts). At this stage, nitroimidazoles are most commonly used.
  • The final stage is the holding of events that can help restore immunity. The dosage of all drugs is established in a strictly individual order, taking into account the age of the patient, the severity of the infection, the presence or absence of concomitant diseases.

A huge role in consolidating the results obtained is played by the prevention of reinfection. It can be avoided if you drink only boiled water, wash your hands more often and do not eat dirty vegetables, fruits. Following simple personal hygiene rules significantly reduces the risk of reinfection.

Pancreatitis is a serious disease, the symptoms of which are caused by inflammatory and necrotic processes in the tissues of the pancreas. They are associated with intoxication resulting from the digestion of the pancreas by its own enzymes and the formation of necrotic masses. Vomiting with pancreatitis is one of the main symptoms that accompany this disease.

In addition, intense pains, often of a girdle nature, almost constant nausea, flatulence, and loose stools are disturbing.

Acute and chronic pancreatitis vary in clinical manifestations and severity of symptoms, including the intensity and frequency of vomiting, which is almost always observed in acute pancreatitis and exacerbation of chronic. It accompanies a pain attack and flatulence.

Acute pancreatitis - manifestations

The mild form of acute pancreatitis is manifested by vomiting, which is repeated once or twice, and may be absent. Sometimes it develops after a certain time from the onset of the disease and is associated with inflammation of the biliary tract or with dietary disorders.

Basically, indomitable vomiting in acute pancreatitis does not bring relief. The presence of urges in the absence of vomit is a frequent sign of acute pancreatitis. Pain is accompanied by anxiety, fear. In this case, severe bleeding often develops, resulting in shock or collapse, which can also cause nausea and vomiting.

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Against the background of acute pancreatitis, intoxication develops. Toxins and breakdown products that enter the bloodstream irritate the vomiting center and lead to vomiting.

Interstitial (edematous) pancreatitis

  • severe pain
  • repeated repeated vomiting with a large number of vomit (sometimes up to 4-6 liters), which contain the remains of undigested food, later mucus and bile appear
  • lack of relief after an attack,
  • increased vomiting after several sips of water,
  • 3-7 days
  • bitterness in the mouth
  • sometimes - vomiting of "coffee grounds" associated with bleeding from erosive vessels of the pancreas.

To stop vomiting, conservative therapy and therapy to reduce edema are prescribed.

Hemorrhagic (necrotic) pancreatitis

With necrotic pancreatitis, which is provoked by alcohol, pancreatic tissue necrosis develops, which is accompanied by:

  • excruciating pains of high intensity,
  • the smell of alcohol emanating from vomit,
  • debilitating vomiting with mushy masses consisting of blood, undigested food and bile,
  • chalk, indicating bleeding in the upper digestive tract.

All this leads to a sharp dehydration. Occurs:

  • loss of sodium, calcium and chlorine ions,
  • the development of collapse or shock,
  • vomiting aspiration,
  • respiratory arrest.

Manifestations of chronic pancreatitis

In chronic pancreatitis, moderate vomiting is usually observed 2-3 times. In a severe attack, it can be repeated, occurs against a background of severe pain provoked by gross non-compliance with the diet or by drinking alcohol.

An attack develops 6–12 hours after a malnutrition or 48–72 hours after drinking alcohol.

  • vomiting with an admixture of bile and duodenal contents,
  • lack of blood in the vomit,
  • the duration of the attack for four hours,
  • pain.

In addition to the above, also concern:

  • bitterness in the mouth
  • diarrhea
  • flatulence,
  • heartburn,
  • lack of appetite.

Symptoms of chronic inflammation in remission

During remission, chronic pancreatitis is manifested by nausea and isolated episodes of vomiting. This is usually due to:

  • malnutrition
  • lack of enzymes
  • pathology of the digestive system.

The latter include:

  • duodenal ulcer,
  • gastritis
  • biliary dyskinesia,
  • cholecystitis.

In these cases, vomiting is not accompanied by pain and causes noticeable relief. If pain is present, it is not as intense as in acute pancreatitis. After each meal, nausea intensifies, vomiting becomes more frequent. The more a person eats, the greater the risk.

Lack of appetite can be considered as a protective reaction of the body from a possible deterioration. In such cases, you need to reduce portions, increase the frequency of food intake, adhere to the diet and diet.

Pancreatitis - the result of pathology of the biliary tract

According to statistics, about 70% of acute pancreatitis or chronic exacerbations are provoked by diseases of the biliary tract. It includes:

  • biliary dyskinesia,
  • exacerbation of calculous cholecystitis,
  • obstructive jaundice.

With obstructive jaundice, a spasm of the sphincter of Oddi occurs, dyskinesia of the bile ducts and their blockage with a stone develops. Bile enters the intestines and stomach and appears in the vomit.

A similar picture develops with edema and sclerosis of the pancreatic head.

In acute pancreatitis or inflammation of the pancreas in the chronic course of the disease caused by alcohol intake, bile is also found in the vomit. The abuse of alcoholic beverages causes spasm of the sphincter of Oddi, an increase in intraductal pressure, resulting in inflammation of the pancreas.

Nausea and vomiting continue to bother for a long time during the recovery period. The inflammatory process is not expressed, and the presence of dyspeptic phenomena is explained by a lack of enzymes and diseases of other organs of the digestive system.

What to do if vomiting develops

If vomiting occurs, medications are used that contribute to replenishing the lost fluid and restoring the electrolyte balance:

  • infusion therapy to normalize fluid volume and electrolytes,
  • analgesics
  • anti-vomiting agents.

The latter are used when the attack continues on the background of the treatment. They belong to various pharmacological groups, their use is symptomatic therapy: Domperidone, Domidon, Cerucal, Metoclopramide, Raglan, Osetron, Ciel, etc.

Self-treatment of vomiting fails, because taking tablets in tablet form is ineffective: they do not have time to be absorbed in the stomach. Infusion therapy is needed in an inpatient setting. It is assigned depending on the severity of the condition individually in each case. Stopping vomiting without further detoxification therapy will cause the accumulation of toxic substances and increased intoxication.

High mortality from pancreatitis and its complications is due to late seeking medical help.

If vomiting occurs, it is necessary to consult a specialist for examination, to clarify the diagnosis and prescribe treatment, taking into account the identified causes. Only a doctor can adequately assess the condition and prescribe a full treatment, which will lead to success.

Treatment of dyskinesia in children

For all the symptoms mentioned above, you must definitely show the child to the doctor. The doctor will make the final diagnosis after the examination. To do this, you will need to undergo an ultrasound, FGDS, conduct a fractional analysis of bile and a general blood test. And, based on the results of this examination, the doctor will prescribe the right and suitable treatment for the child.

Also, with dyskinesia, it is very important to follow a diet. Exclude from the child’s diet all meat semi-finished products, hard cheeses, black and red peppers, horseradish, mustard, fried foods, smoked meats, sweet sparkling water.

Try to eat chicken eggs as little as possible, dairy products are recommended only those that contain the minimum amount of fat.

Eating only warm food, cold food is harmful, it can cause spasms of the bile ducts.

You need to eat more fresh fruits and vegetables. An excellent product for dyskinesia is fish. White bread should be replaced with rye or bran. Try to drink more fluid per day up to 2 liters. A rosehip broth is well suited, for the gall bladder it is very useful and is a balm for it.

Hypokinetic Dyskensia

Hypomotor dysfunction is associated with a decrease in contractility of the duct muscles, leading to insufficient transmission of bile to the duodenum. This pathology in often develops in women after forty years in connection with hormonal changes preceding menopause. Also hypokinetic dyskinesia is prone to people with an unstable psyche who are very emotionally react to stress factors. This is due to the fact that during stress, the activity of the sympathetic nervous system, which maintains the tone of smooth muscles of the digestive tract, decreases.

Symptoms of the disease are:

  • prolonged aching pain in the right hypochondrium, the intensity of which decreases after eating or drugs with a choleretic effect,
  • the appearance of bitterness and an unpleasant odor in the oral cavity,
  • nausea, causing a decrease or lack of appetite,
  • diarrhea, alternating with constipation,
  • increased urination.

With the further development of this type of dyskinesia, the urine acquires a dark shade, and the feces become lighter. Itchy skin and yellowing of the mucous membranes, cornea of ​​the eye and upper layers of the skin appear.

In severe cases of dyskinesia, yellowing of the skin and mucous membranes occurs

In most cases, the onset of symptoms of a hypokinetic form is preceded by severe stress, prolonged emotional stress, starvation or eating large amounts of food with a predominance of fats.

The lack of treatment and the elimination of the causes of the disease leads to:

  • decreased performance
  • insomnia
  • violation of the heart and respiratory rhythm,
  • frequent headaches
  • sweating
  • a menstrual failure in women,
  • problems with potency in men.

The pancreas responds to hypotonic DZHVP by lowering the level of enzymes and hormones, which can trigger the development of diabetes.

Hyperkinetic Dyskensia

Hypertensive biliary dyskinesia develops due to an increase in the tone of the parasympathetic nervous system and is characterized by a violation of the rhythm of bile transport to the intestine. This occurs with frequent reduction of sphincters of the ducts and walls of the bile duct.

An uncontrolled release of bile acids in the absence of food particles in the intestinal lumen leads to constant irritation of its walls.But on the other hand, incoming bile does not contain acids, which provide complete breakdown of fats.

As a result of combining these two factors occurs:

  • the development of pathogenic microflora in the intestine due to a decrease in the antibacterial properties of bile,
  • the formation of inflammatory processes in the stomach and small intestine,
  • flatulence caused by increased fermentation processes during stagnation of food,
  • throwing bile into the stomach,
  • stone formation in the biliary tract due to stagnation of bile.

Symptoms of such changes are:

  • paroxysmal short pain after eating or physical exertion, localized in the right hypochondrium,
  • heartburn,
  • bloating
  • nausea accompanied by vomiting
  • lethargy,
  • diarrhea,
  • the appearance in the language of plaque, which has a pronounced yellow tint.

Constant nausea and frequent vomiting may indicate the development of dyskinesia of gastrointestinal tract and pancreatitis

If against the background of the hypertonic form, inflammation of the pancreas develops, then there is an increase in body temperature, attacks of pain become longer, giving away under the scapula or in the navel.

Attention! A characteristic sign indicating the development of pancreatitis is the lack of relief after vomiting. This should be reported to the doctor during the description of the signs of pathology, as this will help to quickly make the correct diagnosis and begin treatment.

Watch the video: Diseases of the Gallbladder (April 2020).