What tests need to be passed to diagnose diabetes

Diabetes mellitus is a fairly common disease that has an exchange nature. The diagnosis is based on the fact that a malfunction occurs in the human body, leading to a fascination with the level of glucose in the body. This is explained by the fact that insulin is produced in insufficient quantities and its production should not occur.

Many people with diabetes do not even suspect this, because the symptoms are usually not very pronounced at an early stage of the disease. In order to protect yourself, to determine the type of ailment and get recommendations from an endocrinologist, it is important to take a blood and urine test in time to determine your diabetes.

Those who have never encountered a disease should still know the main symptoms of the onset of the disease in order to respond to them in a timely manner and protect themselves.

The first signs of type 2 diabetes are:

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  • feeling of thirst
  • weakness,
  • weight loss
  • frequent urination,
  • dizziness.

At risk for type 1 diabetes are children whose parents were exposed to the disease or had viral infections. In a child, weight loss and thirst indicate damage to the normal functional of the pancreas. However, the earliest symptoms with this diagnosis are:

  • desire to eat a lot of sweets,
  • constant hunger
  • the appearance of headaches
  • the occurrence of skin diseases,
  • deterioration in visual acuity.

In men and women, diabetes is the same. It provokes its appearance inactive lifestyle, overweight, malnutrition. To protect yourself and start the rehabilitation process in time, it is recommended that you donate blood every 12 months to study the amount of glucose in the body.

The main types of blood tests for glucose

In order to determine the extent of the disease and draw up a treatment plan in time, specialists can prescribe these types of tests to their patients:

  • General blood test, in which you can find out only the total amount of dextrose in the blood. This analysis is more related to preventive measures, therefore, with obvious deviations, the doctor may prescribe other, more accurate studies.
  • Blood sampling to study the concentration of fructosamine. It allows you to find out the exact indicators of glucose that were in the body 14-20 days before the analysis.
  • The study of the level of destruction, with blood sampling on an empty stomach and after consuming glucose - glucose tolerance text. Helps to find out the amount of glucose in plasma and identify metabolic disorders.
  • A test that allows you to determine the C-peptide, count the cells that produce the hormone insulin.
  • Determination of the level of concentration of lactic acid, which may vary due to the development of diabetes mellitus.
  • Ultrasound examination of the kidneys. Allows you to determine diabetic nephropathy or other pathologies of the kidneys.
  • Examination of the fundus. During a diabetes mellitus, a person has a visual impairment, therefore this procedure is important in the diagnosis of diabetes.

Pregnant girls are prescribed a glucose tolerance test to eliminate the likelihood of an increase in fetal body weight.

Preparing for blood donation for sugar

To get the most truthful result after taking a blood test for glucose, you need to prepare in advance and conduct it as correctly as possible. To do this, you need to eat 8 hours before blood sampling.

Before analysis, it is recommended that you drink exclusively mineral or plain liquid for 8 hours. It is very important to give up alcohol, cigarettes and other bad habits.

Also, do not engage in physical activity, so as not to distort the results. Stressful situations have an effect on the amount of sugar, so before taking blood, you need to protect yourself as much as possible from adverse emotions.

It is forbidden to conduct an analysis during infectious diseases, because in such cases glucose naturally increases. If the patient took medications before taking the blood, it is necessary to notify the attending physician about this.

Suspected diabetes blood test results

For adult men and women, normal glucose readings are 3.3 - 5.5 mmol / L, when taking blood from a finger, and 3.7 - 6.1 mmol / L when taking a blood test from a vein.

When the results exceed 5.5 mmol / L, the patient is diagnosed with a prediabetes state. If the amount of sugar "rolls over" for 6.1 mmol / l, then the doctor says diabetes.

As for children, the sugar standards in babies under 5 years old are from 3.3 to 5 mmol / l. In newborns, this mark starts from 2.8 to 4.4 mmol / L.

Since in addition to the amount of glucose, doctors determine the level of fructosamine, you should remember its norm indicators:

  • In adults, they are 205-285 μmol / L.
  • In children - 195-271 μmol / L.

If the indicators are too high, diabetes is not necessarily immediately diagnosed. It may also mean a brain tumor, thyroid dysfunction.

Urinalysis for diabetes

A urine test for suspected diabetes is mandatory. This is due to the fact that, under normal conditions, sugar should not be contained in urine. Accordingly, if it is in it, this indicates a problem.

To get the right results, it is very important to adhere to the basic rules established by specialists:

  • Exclude citrus fruits, buckwheat, carrots, tomatoes and beets from the diet (24 hours before the test).
  • Hand over the collected urine no later than after 6 hours.

In addition to diagnosing diabetes mellitus, sugar in the urine may indicate the occurrence of pathologies associated with pancreatitis.

As in the case of a blood test, according to the results of checking the urine content, specialists determine the presence of deviations from the norm. If they are, then this indicates anomalies that have appeared, including diabetes mellitus. In this case, the endocrinologist should prescribe appropriate medications, correct sugar levels, check blood pressure and cholesterol, and write recommendations on a low-carb diet.

Urinalysis should be performed at least once every 6 months. This will help in the early stages of diabetes to have control over the situation and respond to any abnormalities in a timely manner.

There is a subspecies of urinalysis, which is carried out according to the method of tehstakanoy samples. It helps to identify emerging inflammation of the urinary system, as well as determine its location.

When analyzing urine, a healthy person should have the following results:

  • Density - 1.012 g / l-1022 g / l.
  • The absence of parasites, infections, fungi, salts, sugar.
  • Lack of smell, shade (urine should be transparent).

You can also use test strips to study the composition of urine. It is very important to pay attention to the absence of delay in storage time so that the result is as true as possible. Such strips are called glucotests. For the test, you need to lower the glucotest in urine and wait a few seconds. After 60-100 seconds, the reagent will change color.

It is important to compare this result with the one indicated on the package. If a person has no pathologies, the test strip should not change its color.

The main advantage of glucotest is that it is quite simple and convenient. The small size makes it possible to constantly keep them with you, so that, if necessary, you could immediately carry out this kind of text.

Test strips are an excellent tool for people who are forced to constantly monitor the amount of sugar in their blood and urine.

Immunological and hormonal studies

If the doctor has doubts about the diagnosis, he can refer the patient to conduct more in-depth tests:

  • The amount of insulin.
  • Antibodies to beta cells.
  • Marker of diabetes.

In a normal state in humans, the insulin level does not exceed 180 mmol / l, if the indicators decrease to the level of 14, then endocrinologists ascertain diabetes mellitus of the first type. When the level of insulin exceeds the norm, this indicates the appearance of a second type of disease.

As for antibodies to beta cells, they help determine a predisposition to the development of the first type of diabetes mellitus even at the first stage of its development.

If there really is a suspicion of the development of diabetes, it is very important to contact the clinic in time and conduct a series of studies, as a result of which the attending physician will receive a complete picture of the patient’s health status and will be able to prescribe therapy for his quick recovery.

Testing for glycated hemoglobin

An important role is played by the results of the analysis for glycated hemoglobin, which must be carried out at least 2 times in 12 months. This analysis is essential in the initial diagnosis of diabetes. In addition, it is also used to control the disease.

Unlike other studies, this analysis allows you to more accurately determine the patient’s health status:

  1. Find out the effectiveness of the therapy prescribed by the doctor when diabetes is detected.
  2. Find out the risk of complications (occurs with an increased rate of glycosylated hemoglobin).

According to the experience of endocrinologists, with the timely reduction of this hemoglobin by 10 percent or more, there is a chance of reducing the risk of the formation of diabetic retinopathy, leading to blindness.

During pregnancy, girls are often assigned this test, because it allows you to see latent diabetes and protect the fetus from the appearance of possible pathologies and complications.

At 47, I was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. In a few weeks I gained almost 15 kg. Constant fatigue, drowsiness, feeling of weakness, vision began to sit down.

When I turned 55, I was already stabbing myself with insulin, everything was very bad. The disease continued to develop, periodic seizures began, the ambulance literally returned me from the next world. All the time I thought that this time would be the last.

Everything changed when my daughter let me read one article on the Internet. You can’t imagine how grateful I am to her. This article helped me completely get rid of diabetes, an allegedly incurable disease. The last 2 years I started to move more, in spring and summer I go to the country every day, grow tomatoes and sell them on the market. My aunts are surprised at how I keep up with everything, where so much strength and energy comes from, they still won’t believe that I am 66 years old.

Who wants to live a long, energetic life and forget about this terrible disease forever, take 5 minutes and read this article.

Tests for suspected diabetes: what should be taken?

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common metabolic diseases. When it occurs, blood glucose levels increase due to the development of insufficient insulin production in type 1 diabetes and the inability to respond to insulin in type 2 diabetes.

About a quarter of those with diabetes are unaware of their illness, because symptoms at an early stage are not always pronounced.

In order to detect diabetes as early as possible and select the necessary treatment, you need to be examined. For this, blood and urine tests are performed.

Video (click to play).

The first signs of diabetes can appear both suddenly - with the first type of diabetes, and develop over time - with non-insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes usually affects young people and children.

If such symptoms occur, an urgent medical consultation is necessary:

  1. Great thirst begins to torment.
  2. Frequent and profuse urination.
  3. Weakness.
  4. Dizziness.
  5. Weight loss.

The risk group for diabetes includes children of parents who have diabetes, who have had viral infections if they were over 4.5 kg at birth, with any other metabolic diseases, and low immunity.

For such children, the manifestation of symptoms of thirst and weight loss indicates diabetes and severe damage to the pancreas, so there are earlier symptoms that you need to contact the clinic:

  • Increased desire to eat sweets
  • It is difficult to endure a break in food intake - there is a hunger and a headache
  • An hour or two after eating, weakness appears.
  • Skin diseases - neurodermatitis, acne, dry skin.
  • Reduced vision.

In diabetes of the second type, obvious signs appear after a long period after an increase in blood glucose, it affects mainly women after the age of 45 years, especially with a sedentary lifestyle, overweight. Therefore, it is recommended that at this age, everyone, regardless of the presence of symptoms, check the blood glucose level once a year.

When the following symptoms appear, this must be done urgently:

  1. Thirst, dry mouth.
  2. Rashes on the skin.
  3. Dryness and itching of the skin (itching of the palms and feet).
  4. Tingling or numbness at your fingertips.
  5. Itching in the perineum.
  6. Loss of vision.
  7. Frequent infectious diseases.
  8. Fatigue, severe weakness.
  9. Severe hunger.
  10. Frequent urination, especially at night.
  11. Cuts, wounds heal poorly, ulcers form.
  12. Weight gain not related to dietary disorders.
  13. With a waist circumference for men over 102 cm, women - 88 cm.

These symptoms may appear after a severe stressful situation, previous pancreatitis, viral infections.

All this should be an occasion for a visit to the doctor to determine what tests need to be done to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of diabetes.

The most informative tests for determining diabetes are:

  1. A blood test for glucose.
  2. Glucose tolerance test.
  3. Glycated hemoglobin level.
  4. Determination of C-reactive protein.
  5. A blood test for glucose is carried out as the first test for diabetes and is indicated for suspected impaired carbohydrate metabolism, with liver diseases, during pregnancy, increased weight and thyroid diseases.

It is carried out on an empty stomach, from the last meal should pass at least eight hours. Investigated in the morning. Before the examination, it is better to exclude physical activity.

Depending on the survey methodology, the results may be numerically different. On average, the norm is in the range from 4.1 to 5.9 mmol / L.

At normal levels of glucose in the blood, but to study the ability of the pancreas to respond to an increase in glucose, a glucose tolerance test (GTT) is performed. It shows hidden carbohydrate metabolism disorders. Indications for GTT:

  • Overweight.
  • Arterial hypertension.
  • Increased sugar during pregnancy.
  • Polycystic ovary.
  • Liver disease.
  • Long-term use of hormones.
  • Furunculosis and periodontal disease.

Preparation for the test: three days before the test, do not make changes to the usual diet, drink water in the usual amount, avoid excessive sweating factors, you must give up alcohol for a day, you should not smoke and drink coffee on the day of the test.

Testing: in the morning on an empty stomach, after 10-14 hours of hunger, the glucose level is measured, then the patient should take 75 g of glucose dissolved in water. After that, glucose is measured after one hour and two hours later.

Test results: up to 7.8 mmol / l - this is the norm, from 7.8 to 11.1 mmol / l - metabolic imbalance (prediabetes), all that is higher than 11.1 - diabetes.

Glycated hemoglobin reflects the average blood glucose concentration over the previous three months. It should be given up every three months, both to identify the early stages of diabetes and to assess the effect of the prescribed treatment.

Preparation for analysis: spend in the morning on an empty stomach. There should not be intravenous infusions and heavy bleeding during the last 2-3 days.

Measured as a percentage of the total hemoglobin. Normally, 4.5 - 6.5%, the stage of prediabetes is 6-6.5%, diabetes is higher than 6.5%.

The definition of C-reactive protein shows the degree of damage to the pancreas. It is indicated for research in:

  • Detection of sugar in urine.
  • With clinical manifestations of diabetes, but normal glucose readings.
  • With a genetic predisposition to diabetes.
  • Identify signs of diabetes during pregnancy.

Before the test, you can not use aspirin, vitamin C, contraceptives, hormones. It is carried out on an empty stomach, after 10 hours of hunger, on the day of the test you can drink only water, you can not smoke, eat food. They take blood from a vein.

The norm for the C-peptide is from 298 to 1324 pmol / L. In type 2 diabetes, it is higher; the level drop can be in type 1 and insulin therapy.

Normally, there should be no sugar in urine tests. For research, you can take a morning dose of urine or daily. The latter type of diagnosis is more informative. For proper collection of daily urine, you must adhere to the rules:

The morning portion is delivered in the container no later than six hours after collection. The remaining servings are collected in a clean container.

For a day you can not eat tomatoes, beets, citrus fruits, carrots, pumpkins, buckwheat.

If sugar is detected in the urine and the exclusion of a pathology that can cause its increase - pancreatitis in the acute stage, burns, taking hormonal drugs, is diagnosed with diabetes mellitus.

For in-depth research and in case of doubt in the diagnosis, the following tests can be performed:

  • Determination of insulin level: the norm is from 15 to 180 mmol / l, if lower, then this is insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes mellitus, if insulin is higher than normal or within normal limits, this indicates the second type.
  • Pancreatic beta-cell antibodies are determined for early diagnosis or predisposition to type 1 diabetes.
  • Antibodies to insulin are found in patients with type 1 diabetes and in prediabetes.
  • Definition of a marker of diabetes - antibodies to GAD. This is a specific protein, antibodies to it can be five years before the development of the disease.

If you suspect diabetes, it is very important to conduct an examination as soon as possible in order to prevent the development of life-threatening complications. It is very important to know how to detect diabetes. The video in this article will show you what you need to get tested for diabetes.

When the first symptoms of diabetes appear, people go to the doctor for an accurate diagnosis of the disease. Also, many are diagnosed with diabetes in the treatment of other diseases. It often happens that they go to the hospital with thoughts about one problem, but it turns out that diabetes is to blame. In this article we will talk about laboratory diagnosis of diabetes. What diabetes test needs to be done for the diagnosis to be accurate.

Today we will discuss tests that need to be done for the initial diagnosis of diabetes. Regular tests for diabetes, which are needed to control the disease, will be discussed in the next article.

The first thing a doctor will tell you is a blood test for fasting glucose. You will need to not eat about 10-12 hours before donating blood. Wake up early in the morning and go to the laboratory. It is not necessary to wash your hands just before handing over, since you will be treated with a puncture site with alcohol. The analysis is taken from the finger. Ready usually within 3 days.

Depending on age, the rate of sugar changes. A detailed article with tables and a calculator is here. The norm for a middle-aged person is from 4.1 to 5.9 mmol / l. Exceeding the norm may indicate the presence of diabetes.

Also note in which blood sugar was measured. In plasma, sugar is 12% more than in whole blood. Therefore, the numerical values ​​of the norm will be different. Match tables in this article.

Another point that needs special attention. They should take blood from you with special test tubes and blades, and not with a glucometer. All devices, even the best, have an error. But some laboratories save on reagents, and use glucometers for analysis.

Diabetes Test # 2 - Glucose 2 hours after a meal

This analysis is necessary to determine postprandial glycemia. In diabetes, 2 hours after a meal, the sugar level does not decrease, as occurs in a healthy person. If sugar is higher than 11.1 mmol / l, this is another argument for diagnosing diabetes.

This diabetes test is needed to rule out prediabetes.

For rent, like a normal blood test from a finger. Often given along with fasting glucose testing. That is, a person comes, gives blood on an empty stomach, eats, walks for 2 hours, and after that he gives another sugar test.

It can be prescribed if the glucose level after eating is normal. Then the diagnosis of prediabetes or latent diabetes occurs using this analysis.

Preparation for the analysis is not difficult:

  • You do not need to eat 14 hours before blood donation, do not drink alcohol, do not be nervous.
  • 3 days before the analysis, you need to eat no more than 150 grams of carbohydrates per day, and do not play sports.
  • Do not drink coffee or other caffeinated drinks.
  • It is forbidden to take an analysis during menstruation.

The essence of the analysis is as follows. You take a fasting glucose test, then after 5 minutes, drink a warm glucose solution. Further, most often, for convenience, with the help of a glucometer every half an hour for 2 hours you do a sugar test. Based on the data obtained, a graph is built.

If the sugar level did not exceed 7.8 mmol / L, then the sugar level is considered normal. If the range was from 7.8 to 11 mmol / L, this is an indicator of prediabetes. Value above 11 mmol / l means the presence of diabetes.

Diabetes Test # 4 - Determining Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c)

This analysis is convenient in that no preparation needed. The only limitation for delivery is heavy blood loss.

Glycated hemoglobin shows the average blood sugar over a long period. When diagnosing diabetes, it is usually prescribed for preliminary diagnosis. A person does not need to leave the doctor, then go on an empty stomach to take tests. You can pre-do the analysis immediately at the initial dose.

Most often, this analysis is done already with the diagnosis, to control the disease.

Value above 5.9% indicates elevated sugar levels and possible diabetes.

More about this analysis will be in a separate article.

Analysis for diabetes mellitus No. 5 - Blood test for C-peptide

This analysis is necessary. to determine the type of diabetes - insulin dependent or not.

C-peptide is a byproduct of insulin synthesis.

The analysis takes place on an empty stomach. Blood is taken from a vein. No special preparation is required for the analysis.

The following standards, depending on the method of research. 298 - 1324 pmol / L, 0.5 - 2.0 mng / L, 0.9 - 7.1 ng / ml

An increased test result indicates type 2 diabetes (non-insulin-dependent). A reduced value is about type 1 (insulin-dependent).

The above tests are submitted primarily for the diagnosis of diabetes. Combinations of test indicators indicate the type of disease.

Also usually the doctor prescribes additional general teststo exclude other diseases. This is a general analysis of blood and urine, determination of the amount of microalbumin in the urine, ultrasound of the kidneys and thyroid gland, analysis for cholesterol, analysis for magnesium and iron.

These tests help identify or rule out diseases that are complications of diabetes. And, for example, elevated levels of iron in the blood can cause tissue insulin resistance.

Why take tests?

To make sure the diagnosis is correct, the endocrinologist will send the patient to undergo a complex of tests and undergo certain diagnostic procedures, because without this it is impossible to prescribe treatment. The doctor must make sure that he is right and get 100% confirmation.

Examinations for diabetes mellitus type 1 or 2 are prescribed for the following purposes:

  • correct diagnosis
  • dynamics control during the treatment period,
  • determination of changes in the period of compensation and decompensation,
  • control over the functional state of the kidneys and pancreas,
  • self-monitoring of sugar levels,
  • the correct selection of the dosage of a hormonal agent (insulin),
  • monitoring the dynamics during the period of gestation in the presence of gestational diabetes or suspicion of its development,
  • to clarify the presence of complications and their level of development.

General clinical analysis

It is the basis for the diagnosis of any disease. Based on its results, experts prescribe additional research methods. Normally, there is either no sugar in the urine or a minimal amount. Permissible values ​​are up to 0.8 mol / l. With better results, you should think about pathology. The presence of sugar above normal is called the term "glucosuria."

Morning urine is collected after a thorough toilet of the genitals. A small amount is discharged to the toilet, the middle part to the analysis tank, and the remaining part to the toilet again. The jar for analysis should be clean and dry. Hand over within 1.5 hours after collection to prevent distortion of results.

Daily analysis

Allows you to determine the severity of glucosuria, that is, the severity of the pathology. The first portion of urine after sleep is not taken into account, and starting from the second, it is collected in a large container, which is stored throughout the collection time (day) in the refrigerator. On the morning of the next day, urine is crushed so that the entire amount has the same performance. Separately, 200 ml are cast and, together with the direction, are handed over to the laboratory.

Determination of the presence of ketone bodies

Ketone bodies (acetone in the common people) are products of metabolic processes, the appearance of which in the urine indicates the presence of pathology from the side of carbohydrate and fat metabolism. In a general clinical analysis, it is impossible to determine the presence of acetone bodies, so they write that they are not.

A qualitative study is carried out using specific reactions, if the doctor purposefully prescribes the determination of ketone bodies:

  1. Natelson's method - concentrated sulfuric acid is added to the urine, which displaces acetone. It is affected by salicylic aldehyde. If ketone bodies are present above normal, the solution becomes red.
  2. Nitroprusside tests - include several tests using sodium nitroprusside. In each of the methods there are still additional ingredients that differ from each other in chemical composition. Positive samples stain the test substance in shades from red to purple.
  3. Gerhardt's test - a certain amount of ferric chloride is added to the urine, which stains the solution in wine color with a positive result.
  4. Rapid tests involve the use of ready-made capsules and test strips, which can be purchased at the pharmacy.

Microalbumin determination

One of the tests for diabetes, which determines the presence of pathologies of the kidneys against the background of pancreatic disease. Diabetic nephropathy develops against the background of insulin-dependent diabetes, and in type 2 diabetics, the presence of proteins in the urine may be evidence of cardiovascular pathologies.

For diagnosis, morning urine is collected. If there are certain indications, the doctor may order a collection of analysis during the day, morning 4 hours or 8 hours at night. During the collection period, you can not take medications, during menstruation, urine is not collected.

Blood tests

A general blood test shows the following changes:

  • increased hemoglobin - an indicator of dehydration,
  • changes in platelet count towards thrombocytopenia or thrombocytosis indicates the presence of concomitant pathologies,
  • leukocytosis - an indicator of the inflammatory process in the body,
  • hematocrit changes.

Blood glucose test

To get reliable research results, do not eat food, drink only water 8 hours before the analysis. Do not drink alcoholic beverages throughout the day. Before the analysis itself, do not brush your teeth, do not use chewing gum. If you need to take any medications, consult your doctor about their temporary cancellation.

Blood biochemistry

Allows you to determine the performance of sugar in the venous blood. In the presence of diabetes, an increase is observed above 7 mmol / L. The analysis is carried out once a year, regardless of the fact that the patient independently controls his condition daily.

During the treatment, the doctor is interested in the following biochemistry indicators in diabetics:

  • cholesterol - usually elevated in case of a disease,
  • C-peptide - when type 1 is reduced or equal to 0,
  • fructosamine - sharply increased,
  • triglycides - sharply increased,
  • protein metabolism is below normal
  • insulin - with type 1 it is lowered, with 2 - the norm or slightly increased.

Glucose tolerance

The research method shows what changes occur when the sugar load on the body. A few days before the procedure, you need to follow a diet that has a small amount of carbohydrates. 8 hours before the study, refuse food.

Blood is taken from the finger, immediately after passing the analysis, the patient drinks a glucose solution having a certain concentration. An hour later, blood sampling is repeated. In each of the test samples, the glucose level is determined.

Important! After the procedure, the patient should eat well, be sure to include carbohydrates in the diet.

What patients need to know

A constant companion of patients suffering from type 1 and type 2 diseases should be a glucometer. It is with its help that you can quickly determine the level of sugar without contacting specialized medical institutions.

The test is carried out at home daily. In the morning before meals, 2 hours after each meal and at bedtime. All indicators should be recorded in a special diary so that the reception specialist can evaluate the data and determine the effectiveness of the treatment.

In addition, the doctor periodically prescribes additional research methods to assess the dynamics of the disease and the condition of the target organs:

  • constant pressure control
  • electrocardiography and echocardiography,
  • Renovasography
  • examination of a vascular surgeon and angiography of the lower extremities,
  • ophthalmologist consultation and fundus examination,
  • bicycle ergometry,
  • brain examinations (in case of severe complications).

Diabetics are periodically examined by a nephrologist, cardiologist, optometrist, neuro- and angiosurgeon, neuropathologist.

After the endocrinologist makes such a serious diagnosis, you need to responsibly approach compliance with the recommendations and instructions of specialists. This will help maintain normal blood sugar, live long and prevent the development of complications of the disease.

The first symptoms of diabetes

The first signs of diabetes can appear both suddenly - with the first type of diabetes, and develop over time - with non-insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes usually affects young people and children.

If such symptoms occur, an urgent medical consultation is necessary:

  1. Great thirst begins to torment.
  2. Frequent and profuse urination.
  3. Weakness.
  4. Dizziness.
  5. Weight loss.

The risk group for diabetes includes children of parents who have diabetes, who have had viral infections if they were over 4.5 kg at birth, with any other metabolic diseases, and low immunity.

For such children, the manifestation of symptoms of thirst and weight loss indicates diabetes and severe damage to the pancreas, so there are earlier symptoms that you need to contact the clinic:

  • Increased desire to eat sweets
  • It is difficult to endure a break in food intake - there is a hunger and a headache
  • An hour or two after eating, weakness appears.
  • Skin diseases - neurodermatitis, acne, dry skin.
  • Reduced vision.

In diabetes of the second type, obvious signs appear after a long period after an increase in blood glucose, it affects mainly women after the age of 45 years, especially with a sedentary lifestyle, overweight. Therefore, it is recommended that at this age, everyone, regardless of the presence of symptoms, check the blood glucose level once a year.

When the following symptoms appear, this must be done urgently:

  1. Thirst, dry mouth.
  2. Rashes on the skin.
  3. Dryness and itching of the skin (itching of the palms and feet).
  4. Tingling or numbness at your fingertips.
  5. Itching in the perineum.
  6. Loss of vision.
  7. Frequent infectious diseases.
  8. Fatigue, severe weakness.
  9. Severe hunger.
  10. Frequent urination, especially at night.
  11. Cuts, wounds heal poorly, ulcers form.
  12. Weight gain not related to dietary disorders.
  13. With a waist circumference for men over 102 cm, women - 88 cm.

These symptoms may appear after a severe stressful situation, previous pancreatitis, viral infections.

All this should be an occasion for a visit to the doctor to determine what tests need to be done to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of diabetes.

Urine tests for suspected diabetes

Normally, there should be no sugar in urine tests. For research, you can take a morning dose of urine or daily. The latter type of diagnosis is more informative. For proper collection of daily urine, you must adhere to the rules:

The morning portion is delivered in the container no later than six hours after collection. The remaining servings are collected in a clean container.

For a day you can not eat tomatoes, beets, citrus fruits, carrots, pumpkins, buckwheat.

If sugar is detected in the urine and the exclusion of a pathology that can cause its increase - pancreatitis in the acute stage, burns, taking hormonal drugs, is diagnosed with diabetes mellitus.

Analyzes and doctors for diabetes, control and diagnosis of the disease.

Doctors learned how to treat diabetes many years ago. Therapy is to normalize sugar levels and maintain it throughout life. This must be done independently, but under the supervision of the attending physician. Diabetes tests are an important element of this therapy. They allow you to find out the rate of development of the disease, and the presence of complications, as well as the appropriateness of using new methods of treatment.

Of course, the deterioration can be seen as well. Usually, with increased sugar, the skin begins to itch, the patient experiences a strong thirst, he has frequent urination. But sometimes the disease can proceed secretly, and then it can only be determined with an appropriate analysis.

In tests for diabetes, it is very important to observe regularity. Then you can know the following:

  • Are the pancreatic beta cells completely damaged or can their activity be restored,
  • how successful are the therapeutic measures,
  • are complications of diabetes developing and at what rate
  • how high the likelihood of new complications.

There are mandatory tests (for example, a general blood test, determination of blood sugar and urine), as well as auxiliary tests that are best done to get more information about the disease. Let's consider them in more detail.

This is a classic analysis that takes place in the morning. It allows you to detect the presence of pronounced diabetes mellitus. It is important that glucose does not enter the body for 8 hours before taking blood, but you can drink plain water.

This analysis allows you to determine diabetes in the initial stages. In a healthy person, 2 hours after eating, the amount of glucose in the blood is significantly reduced. If this does not happen, there is reason to worry about the presence of pathologies. It is also important to know blood sugar 1 hour after a meal.

These two tests are mandatory for diabetes and are done regularly. As for the other procedures, they are desirable and are prescribed in consultation with the attending physician.

For non-insulin-dependent diabetics, glycated hemoglobin analysis is recommended to be done twice a year, the rest - 4. Blood sampling is carried out from a vein. Using this analysis, you can monitor the dynamics of the disease and the effectiveness of the treatment.

Doctors recommend doing these tests often - 2 times a month. The fructosamine indicator is necessary in order to recognize the onset of complications in time. The analysis is done on an empty stomach, and its norm is as follows:

  • 195-271 μmol / l up to 14 years old,
  • 205-285 μmol / l over 14 years.

If fructosamine is elevated, this means that renal failure, hypothyroidism develops, with a lack of substance, the presence of nephropathy, hypoalbuminemia or hyperthyroidism is suspected.

A general blood test is performed in order to identify common abnormalities in the body. In diabetes, characteristic indicators can have the following meanings:

  1. Hemoglobin. Low values ​​indicate developing anemia, internal bleeding, problems with blood formation. Excess hemoglobin indicates severe dehydration.
  2. Platelets. If these little bodies are very few, then the blood will clot poorly. This indicates the presence of infectious diseases, inflammatory processes in the body.
  3. White blood cells. An increase in the number of white bodies indicates the presence of inflammation, an infectious process. If they are few, the patient may suffer from radiation sickness and other serious pathologies.

A general blood test is recommended to be taken regularly to monitor the condition of the body for various pathologies.

This test is handed over in order to detect severe internal diseases that may not manifest themselves in any way. The following indicators are measured:

Even if you constantly monitor the level of glucose in the blood, once every six months it is necessary to take a urine test. It allows you to find out if kidney diabetes is not affected. The analysis shows the following:

  • the presence of sugar in the urine,
  • various chemical indicators
  • physical properties of urine
  • specific gravity,
  • the presence of acetone, proteins and other substances in the urine.

Although a general analysis of urine does not give a complete picture of the disease, it allows you to find out its individual details.

This analysis is necessary in order to detect early kidney damage in diabetes mellitus. In a healthy state, albumin is not excreted through the kidneys, therefore it is absent in urine. If the kidneys cease to function normally, the albumin in the urine increases. This indicates developing diabetic nephropathy, as well as disorders of the cardiovascular system.

This protein appears in the pancreas during the breakdown of primary insulin. If it circulates in the blood, this indicates that iron still produces this hormone. If the amount of this substance is normal, and the sugar in the body is increased, we are talking about the loss of sensitivity of cells to insulin, that is, type 2 diabetes. Then they begin to follow a low-carb diet, take sugar-lowering drugs and medications that fight insulin resistance.

A significant increase in C-peptide indicates advanced type 2 diabetes, and its amount below normal indicates the need for insulin treatment. It is recommended that you do not start diabetes treatment without finding out the amount of your C-peptide. Then this analysis can be omitted, but an initial clarification of the situation will greatly help to prescribe the correct therapy.

There are other laboratory tests to determine the characteristics of the course of diabetes. In particular, these are tests for iron, for thyroid hormones, for cholesterol. All of them allow you to identify concomitant diseases and possible complications, but are not required for each patient. They can be recommended by a doctor if necessary.

As already mentioned, diabetes causes multiple changes in the body and leads to serious consequences. To detect complications in time, it is not enough to take tests. It is also necessary to go to the diagnostic procedures indicated below.

Most often, diabetes eventually affects the kidneys, causing kidney failure. In many patients, it reaches such an extent that transplantation is required. Ultrasound allows you to identify changes in the structure of the body. Examination should be regular in order to detect pathology in time and prevent the further development of the disease.

Another favorite area for diabetes is eye tissue. With an excessive amount of sugar in the blood, diabetic retinopathy appears, since the fragility of small blood vessels increases, hemorrhages increase, which leads to a change in the fundus. In the future, the patient's vision deteriorates, glaucoma and cataracts develop. A constant examination by an ophthalmologist will allow you to detect this process in the early stages and save your eyesight.

Diabetes affects blood vessels not only in the eye, but throughout the body, in particular, the limbs. Point hemorrhages, spasms, gluing together of small arteries - all this leads to the death of blood vessels and the beginning of tissue necrosis. To prevent the possible development of gangrene, it is recommended to regularly monitor the state of the vessels and start treatment in a timely manner. In addition, you must have a personal blood glucose meter and take sugar measurements every day.

Any diagnostic procedure has a certain value, because it allows you to get additional information about the disease or its complications. But there are the most important analyzes. These include constant monitoring of blood sugar with a glucometer, regular monitoring of sugar in the urine. Other tests should be done periodically, but only with the agreement of the attending physician.

The patient with diabetes must first learn how to maintain normal glucose levels. Then it is possible to avoid pathologies of the kidneys, eyes, limbs, etc. For this, you need to not only take measurements with a glucometer, but also follow a low-carb diet and take medications in a timely manner.

Analysis of glycated hemoglobin allows you to find out how much sugar levels are normally maintained over a long period. In other words, this analysis shows an average glucose level of 3 months. This is especially important if the disease affects children who may not follow a diet, and put their blood in order before analysis. This analysis will be able to detect this tricky move and show the real picture.

The second most important analysis of the optional is for C-reactive protein. It is quite cheap, but allows you to identify the condition of the pancreas and choose the right treatment. Other tests are desirable for delivery, but they are expensive and will show only some details of the disease. In particular, lipid analysis can show how many fats and cholesterol circulate in the body, how this affects the blood vessels.

Analysis for thyroid hormones will reveal the pathology of this organ and eliminate it. After all, malfunctions in the thyroid gland very much affect the course of diabetes. An endocrinologist will be able to determine the pathology and prescribe treatment. After completing the course of drugs, it is necessary to repeat the test and evaluate the change. But if the financial situation does not allow such regular examinations, it is better to abandon them than to control sugar levels.

And additional tests can be done at another time, when finances and the condition of the body allow.

In addition to sugar level, it is recommended to measure other parameters. In particular, it is necessary every day at the same time to measure your blood pressure and record its indicators in tetra. It is also recommended that you obtain accurate scales and record your weight once a week. If it varies within 2 kg, then this is the norm, but an increase in a larger direction indicates metabolic disorders. Since diabetes affects the blood vessels of the eyes, it is recommended to visit an ophthalmologist every year and do a routine examination.

Every day it is necessary to examine the feet, especially in the area of ​​the fingers. You should know the main signs of the onset of diabetic foot syndrome and, if you suspect it has begun, consult your doctor. You can also periodically come to an appointment with specialists who are directly involved in the treatment of diabetic foot. If you miss the time of onset of the disease and come when the inflammation has gone too far, you can remain without limbs.


  1. Tsarenko, S.V. Intensive care for diabetes mellitus / S.V. Tsarenko. - M.: Medicine, 2008 .-- 615 p.

  2. Dedov I.I. other. How to live with diabetes. Tips for teenagers with diabetes, as well as for parents of sick children. Brochure. Moscow, 1995, 25 pages, without specifying the publisher and circulation, printed with the assistance of the company "Novo Nord suit."

  3. Rudnitsky L.V. Thyroid diseases. Treatment and prevention, Peter - M., 2012. - 128 c.

Let me introduce myself. My name is Yelena. I have been working as an endocrinologist for over 10 years. I think that at present I am a professional in my field and I want to help all site visitors solve complex and not very difficult tasks. All materials for the site are collected and thoroughly processed in order to deliver as much as possible all the necessary information. Before using the described on the site, a mandatory consultation with experts is always necessary.

Blood glucose test

The very first and simplest test is a blood glucose test for NatoSchak diabetes. It doesn’t matter in capillary or venous blood, just normal rates will vary slightly. A blood test for diabetes is usually given in the morning after an 8-hour sleep, the use of any products is prohibited. And if on an empty stomach a high level of glucose in the blood is determined (hyperglycemia), diabetes can be suspected, which must be confirmed on the basis of a repeated blood test for glucose. If the blood glucose level is more than 7 mmol / L TWICE, then the doctor will diagnose diabetes. If the figure ranges from normal to 7, then conduct a second analysis.

Oral glucose tolerance test (PTTG)

Determination timeImpaired glucose toleranceDiabetesNorm
Capillary bloodDeoxygenated bloodCapillary bloodDeoxygenated bloodCapillary bloodDeoxygenated blood
On an empty stomach= 6,1>= 7,0= 7.8 and = 7.8 and = 11.1>= 11,1= 11.1). With a glucose concentration> = 7.8 and By the way, we recommend reading the article All you need to know about glycated hemoglobin

  • It is unreasonable to test if fasting glycemia is more than 7.0 mmol / L TWICE.
  • Drugs that increase or decrease blood sugar are excluded.
  • The test is not performed for patients taking a course of glucocorticoids, diuretics or other drugs that reduce the sensitivity of tissues to insulin.
  • The patient should not have acute diseases.
  • The patient should not be on bed rest.
  • Do not test for children.

Glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin associated with glucose, A1c)

This test is rarely used as a separate test for diabetes, but it is an important criterion for assessing the severity of diabetes and shows how sugar-lowering drugs are effective. This study is not necessarily performed on an empty stomach. Glycated hemoglobin reflects the average blood glucose over the past 3 months. Normally, A1c is not more than 6.0%.

In diabetes mellitus, the level should not exceed 7.0% - this is the target value, which reduces the risk of developing chronic complications. Accordingly, the higher the glycated hemoglobin, the higher the degree of decompensation. Increased TWICE glycated hemoglobin indicates diabetes mellitus.

Ketonuria (urine content of acetone, acetoacetic acid) is not a diagnostic test for diabetes. Acetone and acetoacetic acid in the urine may appear in other conditions (for example, when the patient is losing weight and "dieting"). But ketonuria is used to diagnose diabetic ketoacidosis. The study is carried out using test strips, which allows the patient to conduct it himself at home.

Glucosuria

Glucosuria (blood glucose) is also not a major indicator of diabetes. Normally, a healthy person has no glucose in the urine at all and the renal threshold is 10 mmol / L, i.e., the concentration of glucose in the blood> = 10 mmol / L. Accordingly, the patient may have diabetes, but there will be no glucose in the urine.

To summarize, the first 3 tests are used to make a diagnosis of diabetes or its refutation.

Diabetes Monitoring

Now we will consider what tests you need to take and take control of an existing disease of diabetes.

1) The level of glucose in the blood. For self-monitoring, glucometers are used. For type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes in the opening and during insulin therapy 4 times a day DAILY! If DM 2 is compensated and the patient is on oral hypoglycemic therapy, then the glucose level is measured 1 time per day + 1 time per week 1 day 4 times a day (glycemic profile).

2) Glycated hemoglobin 1 time in 3 months.

3) UAC, OAM 1-2 times a year, according to indications more often.

4) Biochemical blood test for diabetes.

Watch the video: Checking Your Blood Glucose. Diabetes Discharge. Nucleus Health (April 2020).