Is the gallbladder and pancreas the same thing or not?

Today I want to continue talking with you about gallstone disease and pancreatitis, about the gall bladder and pancreas. On the close connection between these diseases and these organs.

You know, this close connection was discovered by scientists a long time ago. And immediately the question arose: why? Yes, close proximity, common origin, general “work”. All this, of course, explains a lot. And yet: what mechanisms lead to the fact that in diseases of the gallbladder, as a rule, the pancreas suffers, and cholelithiasis very often leads to pancreatitis? There were many interesting studies, exciting and unexpected discoveries, many victories and disappointments. And the result? And the result is great knowledge. And I want to tell you about him today.

And I will tell you about the so-called "theory of the common channel." As I wrote earlier, the main bile duct and the main duct of the pancreas flow into the duodenum. And they fall into it in the same place - Vater's nipple. But scientists have found that there are several options for the flow of these ducts into the duodenum.

Yes, there are several options. But for us it will be enough to divide all of these options into two types. The first is when the ducts merge with each other and flow into the intestine with one hole before they enter the intestine. And the second - when the ducts enter the intestine separately from each other, each opening into the intestine with its own hole. Look at the diagram to make it clearer what I'm talking about.

And now the question is: guess which option suggests the closest relationship between the gallbladder and pancreas? In which of the options is cholelithiasis most often complicated by pancreatitis and vice versa? I think the answer is not complicated. Of course, at the first.

Yes, scientists came to this conclusion and their guesses were confirmed experimentally. And so the theory of the “common channel” was born. Why was she called that? Because scientists have come to the conclusion that most often gallstone disease leads to pancreatitis when the ducts merge with each other even before they enter the intestines. Then, when these two important ducts, merging, form one common channel. I note right away that these ducts merge with each other in more than 70% of cases.

How does damage to the pancreas occur in cholelithiasis?

You see, what’s the matter, when merging it turns out that both of these ducts communicate with each other. And now imagine a situation when a stone, leaving the gallbladder, passing the cystic duct and common bile duct, “stuck” where both ducts merged into one, flow into the duodenum. And this, by the way, happens quite often. Because the place where the ducts enter the intestines is the bottleneck in all the bile ducts. What happens next?

The liver continues to produce bile. The pancreas also continues to work and develop its secret. These fluids enter the canals, and they cannot exit the intestines: the stone blocked the path. The secrets of both glands accumulate, and the pressure in the ducts rises sharply. And this, sooner or later, leads to rupture of the ducts. Tear, of course, the smallest and most fragile ducts. About what happens in this case with the liver, we already spoke with you in the article "Gallstone disease and ... jaundice." Now we will begin to talk about what is happening in this situation with the pancreas.

Rupture of the pancreatic ducts leads to the fact that the contents of the duct go into the tissue of the gland. In addition, nearby gland cells and blood vessels are torn. But what is in the ducts of the gland? Enzymes that break down proteins, fats and carbohydrates. That is, what the pancreas itself consists of. True, in the ducts, these enzymes are inactive. But with trauma and rupture of pancreatic cells, these enzymes are activated. And they start to work. The process of self-digestion of the gland starts. Acute pancreatitis and pancreatic necrosis develops: the most serious and dangerous disease!

Here is such a mechanism for pancreatic damage and the development of acute pancreatitis in cholelithiasis. As you can see, it is the gallbladder stones (cholelithiasis) that caused pancreatitis in this case. It was the exit of the stone from the gallbladder and the obstruction of the ducts that caused the catastrophe.

Therefore, I again and again urge you to think about whether it is worth storing the gall bladder with stones that give bouts of hepatic colic and at any time can lead to acute pancreatitis and pancreatic necrosis. Should I try to “expel” stones from the gallbladder?

After all, no one knows how these stones will behave during the so-called “persecution”. No one knows if they will slip into the duodenum or get stuck along the road, causing serious complications.

In conclusion, I want to say that, of course, pancreatitis does not always occur due to the gallstone disease. There are other reasons. But you and I are interested in precisely cholelithiasis, therefore we will not discuss other reasons here.

I hope that my information will help you in understanding your illness, help you make the right decision and save you from many mistakes! Health to you and well-being! Believe me, all this is in your hands!

Location and function of the gallbladder

The gallbladder is located in the anterior section of the right longitudinal groove of the liver. It resembles the shape of a pear or cone. The size of the organ can be compared to a small chicken egg. It looks like an oval pouch.

The anatomical structure of the organ is conditionally divided into the bottom (expanded section), body (middle part) and the neck (narrowed part) of the gallbladder. Also present are the hepatic and cystic ducts, which are combined into a common bile duct 6-8 cm long. The neck reaches 3.5 cm into the cystic duct. Using smooth muscle pulp (Lutkens sphincter), bile and pancreatic juice are sent to the duodenum 12.

Bile secreted by the liver cells partially enters the intestines. The second part accumulates in the gallbladder. It is a green viscous fluid. Since water is absorbed in the body, the concentration of bile increases several times. It contains bilirubin, cholesterol, bile pigments and acids.

For 1 day in the human body, approximately 1500 ml of bile is produced. Its main function is participation in the digestion process: bile is a catalyst that activates all kinds of enzymes, in particular lipase. In addition, bile performs such tasks in the body:

  • breaks down fats into smaller molecules that increase the contact area of ​​fats with enzymes,
  • enhances intestinal motility, absorption of vitamin K and fats,
  • It has a bactericidal effect and prevents rotting processes.

When food enters the stomach and duodenum, the liver begins to secrete more bile.

The gall bladder acts as an additional reservoir of bile. It cannot contain a large volume of liquid - only 60 ml. However, the bile entering this organ becomes very concentrated. This indicator exceeds 10 times the concentration of bile just produced by the liver.

Thus, the gallbladder serving, which additionally enters the intestines, makes up 1/3 of the daily volume of bile produced.

Location and function of the pancreas

The pancreas is a glandular organ that performs endocrine and exocrine functions.

It is located in the peritoneum behind the stomach in the epigastric region near the spleen. Its left part enters the left hypochondrium. The gland bag separates the stomach and pancreas. The posterior organ is adjacent to the veins and aorta.

The pancreas consists of several parts - the head, body and tail. The exocrine part of the organ is the excretory ducts that open into the lumen of the duodenum. This is where pancreatic juice, necessary for the digestive process, gets. The endocrine part consists of pancreatic islets, the so-called islets of Langerhans, a large number of which are located in the tail of the pancreas.

The pancreas performs many vital functions, conditionally divided into external (endocrine) and internal (exocrine).

Intra secretory function - control of sugar level and metabolism. Almost 3 million islets of Langerhans are present in this organ. They contain four types of cells involved in controlling the concentration of glucose in the bloodstream. Each type is responsible for the production of a particular hormone:

  1. Alpha cells secrete glucagon, which increases sugar content.
  2. Beta cells produce insulin, which lowers glucose.
  3. Delta cells produce somatostatin, which regulates the work of alpha and beta cells.
  4. PP cells produce pancreatic polypeptide (PPP), which suppresses the secretion of the organ and stimulates the secretion of gastric juice.

The exocrine function is the digestive process. The pancreas is a source of special enzymes that help break down carbohydrates (often starch), proteins and lipids (fats).

The body produces enzymes in an inactive form called proenzymes, or proenzymes. When they enter the duodenum 12, enteropeptidase activates them, forming amylase (for the breakdown of carbohydrates), protease (for proteins) and lipase (for fats).

All these enzymes are part of pancreatic juice, which is involved in the digestion of food.

Gallbladder disease

Frequently diagnosed pathologies of the gallbladder are gallstone disease, cholecystitis, as well as polyps and organ dyskinesia.

In gallstone disease, stones (stones) form in the ducts and the gallbladder itself. Currently, more than 10% of the population of industrialized countries suffers from this disease.

Risk factorsAge, gender (women are more susceptible), overweight, hepatic choledoch stenosis and cysts, liver cirrhosis, hepatitis, parapapillary duodenal diverticula, hemolytic anemia, abuse of protein diet.
SymptomsThe disease is asymptomatic for a long time (5-10 years). The main signs are jaundice, biliary colic, cutting pains, bouts of angina pectoris.
TreatmentDiet No. 5, shock wave lithotripsy, cholecystectomy (organ removal), taking bile acid preparations.

Cholecystitis is most often a consequence of gallstone disease, in which pathological microflora are produced and the outflow of bile is disturbed. As a result, inflammation of the gallbladder occurs.

The disease can occur in a chronic and acute form. Acute cholecystitis is divided into several types:

  • catarrhal (causing severe pain in the epigastrium and hypochondrium),
  • phlegm (pains are observed even with a change of position, breathing and coughing, a person suffers from tachycardia and febrile temperature),
  • gangrenous (a significant decrease in immunity, a more pronounced clinical picture).
The reasonsThe formation of stones that cause stagnation of bile and the appearance of harmful bacteria.
SymptomsAcute cholecystitis: sharp pains that give off to the hypochondrium, epigastrium, lower back, shoulder girdle, right shoulder blade and neck, attacks of nausea and vomiting, hyperthermia, tachycardia, bloating, the right side of the peritoneum during palpation is somewhat tense.

Chronic cholecystitis: nausea, dull pain in the right hypochondrium, hepatic colic, the severity of pain in the early morning and night, jaundice.

TreatmentReception of antibiotics, special nutrition, antispasmodics, duodenal sounding, cholecystectomy.

It is worth noting that in 99% of cases, the removal of the gallbladder eliminates any problems. The performed manipulations do not significantly affect the digestion and vital activity of a person as a whole.

Pathology of the pancreas

The most common pancreatic diseases are pancreatitis and diabetes mellitus, pseudocysts, malignant neoplasms and cystic fibrosis are less often diagnosed.

Pancreatitis is a complex of syndromes in which inflammation of the pancreas occurs.

This is due to the activation of enzymes in the gland itself. As a result, they do not end up in the duodenum and begin to digest the gland itself. There are several types of pancreatitis:

  • purulent (phlegmous inflammation, the formation of macro- and microabscesses),
  • biliary (inflammation of the pancreas with lesions of the liver and gastrointestinal tract),
  • hemorrhagic (destruction of the parenchyma and vascular structure),
  • acute alcohol (occurs with a single or constant intake of alcohol).
The reasonsLong-term alcohol dependence, smoking, regular overeating, abuse of protein diet, gallstone disease, taking certain medications, biliary duct dyskinesia, cholecystitis, perforated duodenal ulcer, hepatitis B and C, helminthic invasions, cytomegalovirus.
SymptomsAcute pancreatitis: severe epigastric pain (often surrounding), vomiting, weakness, hyperthermia, yellowness of the skin, flatulence, constipation or diarrhea (mucus and undigested food particles are observed in the stool).

Chronic pancreatitis: mild symptoms, persistent weakness, dizziness, and nausea.

TreatmentEnzymatic agents, enterosorbents, probiotics, antispasmodics, painkillers and antidiarrheals, vitamin-mineral complexes. When acute pancreatitis manifests itself for 2 days, fasting is prescribed, then diet No. 5.

Diabetes mellitus is a disease recognized by the epidemic of the 21st century. It is characterized by partial (type II) or complete (type II) stopping the production of insulin. As a result, there is an increase in blood glucose.

Risk factorsGenetic predisposition, overweight, abnormal pregnancy, pancreatic dysfunction, viral infections.
SymptomsPolyuria, constant thirst, tingling and numbness of the extremities, decreased visual acuity, weakness, irritability, dizziness, headache, impaired reproductive system (menstrual cycle disorder and problems with potency).
TreatmentInsulin therapy, hypoglycemic drugs, sports.

Prevention of diseases of the digestive tract

There are a large number of factors affecting the work of the gallbladder and pancreas.

Since the work of the gallbladder and pancreas is closely related, you need to know how to protect these organs from the effects of external negative factors.

All causes of disturbances in the functioning of these organs are of various origins, and for their elimination certain rules and recommendations should be followed.

Preventive measures include the following popular recommendations:

  1. Restriction in the diet of fatty, salty, smoked, pickled and carbohydrate-containing foods. Cooking should be done steamed, baked or boiled.
  2. Body weight control and active lifestyle. Every person should walk at least 30-40 minutes daily. At the same time, work and rest should alternate.
  3. Avoidance of strong emotional shocks. As you know, stress is a harbinger of various human diseases, in particular the digestive tract.
  4. Prepare to go through a certain time diagnostic research methods that will help to timely identify pathological changes in the pancreas or gall bladder.

Of particular importance is dietary nutrition. The basis is taken diet number 5 according to Pevzner.

To prevent the further development of pancreatitis or cholecystitis, it is necessary to introduce gentle products into the diet. In this case, vegetables are best taken in boiled or grated form.

Meals are divided into 5-6 times, and the portions should be small. It is allowed to eat food of medium temperature, not too hot or cold. In the diet of diet 5 with pancreatitis, you can enter the following products:

  • lean meats and fish,
  • skim milk and its derivatives,
  • dried fruits, berries, apples and bananas,
  • any cereals and vegetable soups,
  • some vegetable oil
  • potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, beets,
  • yesterday’s bread, Maria cookies,
  • green tea, rosehip broth, kissel, uzvar.

It should be noted that gastrointestinal diseases have been diagnosed more and more recently due to inactive lifestyles, malnutrition and the presence of excess weight in many people.

Pancreatic and gall bladder dysfunction should be treated with medication and surgery. No folk remedies can cure the disease.

The anatomical features of the liver, gall bladder and pancreas are discussed in the video in this article.

The pancreas and gall bladder are the same or not - Liver treatment

The gall bladder is an unpaired hollow organ of the digestive system, related to auxiliary. This small organ performs important functions in the body. Finding the gall bladder in the photo is very easy. It is located next to the liver and looks like a small bag.

Which side is it on? The location of the gallbladder in humans is the right hypochondrium, the lower surface of the liver. It is located between its lobes (right and square) and is connected to it by the bile duct. Another duct is connected to the duodenum.

Gallbladder anatomy

In shape, it resembles an elongated pear-shaped sac. Depending on the filling, it can become cylindrical or round.

Together with the bile ducts, it forms the biliary system.

Parts of the gallbladder are the body, neck and bottom. Its bottom protrudes from under the liver in front and can be examined using ultrasound.

The body is located between the bottom and the cystic duct, through which bile from the ventricles enters the common bile duct. Its narrow part, passing into the cystic bile duct, is called the neck of the gallbladder.

Through the cervical duct through the cystic duct, the ventricle is connected to the rest of the biliary tract. The length of the gallbladder duct is about 4 cm.

In the length of the stomach reaches 7–10 cm, in diameter in the region of the bottom - 2–3 cm. Its volume is only 50 ml.

The upper wall adjacent to the liver and the free lower side facing the abdominal cavity are isolated.

The wall includes several layers:

  • External - serous membrane.
  • Muscle layer.
  • The inner is the epithelium.
  • Mucous membrane.

Topography of the gallbladder:

  • Holotopia. Subcostal region on the right.
  • Syntopy. The upper wall of the pancreas closely adjoins the visceral surface of the liver, where a fossa of the corresponding size is formed. Sometimes the bubble seems embedded in the parenchyma. The lower wall is often in contact with the colon transverse intestine, less commonly with the stomach and duodenum. The bottom when filling touches the abdominal wall.
  • Skeletonotopy: the bottom of the ventricle is projected on the right side next to the junction of the cartilage of the right IX and X ribs. In another way, the projection can be found at the intersection of the costal arch and the line connecting the navel to the top of the right axillary fossa.

Blood supply to the organ occurs with the help of the cystic artery - a branch of the hepatic right artery. Blood flows from it through the vesical vein into the right branch of the portal vein.

The bile ducts are tubular hollow organs that ensure the flow of bile from the liver into the duodenum. The hepatic ducts (right and left) merge and form the common hepatic duct, which merges with the cystic. As a result, a common bile duct is formed, which opens into the lumen of the duodenum.

What is the gall bladder for?

The main role of the gallbladder in the human body is the accumulation of bile, which is formed in the liver, and its output into the duodenum for digesting food. In addition, he is responsible for the reverse absorption of salts and amino acids into the blood, as well as for the release of the hormone anticholecystokinin and mucus.

A healthy person's hepatocytes produce from 0.5 to 1.5 liters of bile per day. From the liver through a complex network of ducts, bile enters the gallbladder.

In the stomach, it is concentrated, and only the substances necessary for digestion remain in it:

  • Dizoxycholic, cholic and other acids.
  • Potassium and sodium salts.
  • Phospholipids, cholesterol, proteins, bile pigments and other substances.

Bile begins to be secreted from the bladder only when food enters the intestines. When it appears in the duodenum, the pancreas is reduced and bile is sent through the bile duct to the intestine.

The functions of the gallbladder in the body are as follows:

  • Neutralization of gastric juice.
  • Activation of pancreatic and intestinal enzymes.
  • Stimulation of intestinal motility.
  • Prevention of the growth of harmful bacteria in the intestines.
  • Excretion of drugs and toxins.

So why do you need a gall bladder? In the intestine, food processing begins with enzymes of the pancreas and small intestine. This is possible only in an alkaline environment, so bile neutralizes acid (in the stomach, protein food is exposed to hydrochloric acid) using sodium and potassium salts.

To enhance the production of enzymes of the pancreas and small intestine, the pancreas secretes hormones - anticholicystokinin and secretin. Then the acid contained in the bile grinds and envelops the fats to facilitate their processing by intestinal enzymes.

Bile stimulates intestinal motility and facilitates easier movement of food mass along it, and to secrete intestinal enzymes from the intestine, mucus secretes mucus.

The gall bladder also works to remove excess cholesterol, as well as bilirubin, salts of heavy metals and other toxins from the body.

Anomalies of the gastrointestinal tract and biliary tract

Anomalies of the bladder can form during fetal development. As a rule, there are two of them - the lack of an organ and its underdevelopment. They are divided into subspecies depending on location, nature and other criteria. Distinguish:

  • Agenesis - an organ is not formed.
  • Aplasia - there are bile ducts and non-functional primordium of the bladder.
  • Hypoplasia is a small organ with underdeveloped tissues.

ZhP can have an abnormal location:

  • Under the left side of the liver.
  • Across her.
  • Inside her.
  • Have a left-handed arrangement.

A moving body can take the place of:

  • Outside the liver, inside the peritoneum.
  • It does not have a fixation with a high risk of excesses and twists.
  • Completely outside the liver, it is attached using a long mesentery, it is covered with peritoneal tissue.

In addition, the gastrointestinal tract can be multi-chamber, doubled, bilobate, and consist of three independent organs.

Anomalies can occur due to constriction or kinks. In this case, the HP can take various forms.

Anomalies are treated with medication, using physiotherapy and diets. In some cases, surgery may be indicated.

Biliary dyskinesia

It is characterized by a deterioration in the motility of the stomach and biliary tract and a violation of the outflow of bile. It is characterized by painful digestion, nausea, pain in the right hypochondrium, nervousness.

It develops more often in young people, often against the background of situations that traumatize the psyche.

It often occurs in combination with other diseases of the digestive system: gastritis, pancreatitis, cholecystitis, peptic ulcer and others.

With biliary dyskinesia, complex therapy is carried out, including the normalization of diet, diet, treatment of foci of infection, taking antiparasitic drugs, antispasmodics and other drugs.

Cholelithiasis

This disease is quite common and is characterized by a violation of the exchange of bilirubin and cholesterol and the formation of stones of different sizes in the cavity of the bladder, liver and bile duct. The cholelithiasis can proceed without symptoms for a long time, but when a stone enters a narrow duct, an attack occurs called hepatic colic.

Treatment can be both conservative and surgical. It consists in following a diet with a restriction of animal fats, taking medications that prevent the formation of stones and contribute to their removal, spa treatment. To relieve pain, analgesics and spasmolytics are taken, in the case of a bacterial infection, antibiotics are taken.

With a stubborn course, frequent relapses and ineffectiveness of therapeutic treatment, with perforation and blockage of the stomach, the formation of fistulas, surgical intervention is indicated.

Chronic cholecystitis

This is an inflammatory disease of the inner lining of the stomach without the formation of stones. The reasons for the development are many:

  • Bacterial infections.
  • Parasitic diseases.
  • Allergic reactions.
  • Stagnation of bile.
  • Pancreatitis.
  • Hepatitis.
  • Reverse casting from the intestines of bile containing pancreatic enzymes, which, once in the intestine, begin to digest its walls.

Cholangin is an acute or chronic inflammation of the biliary tract, most often caused by bacteria. It may occur after removal of the pancreas. Treatment is carried out with antibacterial, antispasmodic, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory drugs. Surgery is often required.

Malignant tumor

Cancer of this organ is characterized by high malignancy and early formation of metastases. It can be squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and others. Most often, the oncological process develops in the stomach affected by a chronic inflammatory disease. The treatment consists in early surgical intervention, chemotherapy.

How is the gallbladder connected with the pancreas? ⚕️

The pancreas and gall bladder are organs that are closely interconnected anatomically and functionally. They are located in close proximity to each other and have a common duct that opens through the sphincter of Oddi into the lumen of the duodenum (duodenum). Without their synchronous operation, the digestive process is disrupted.

This leads to disruptions in the digestion of food and inflammatory processes in both organs. The influence of the gallbladder during the formation of calculi in it or the development of the inflammatory process on the pancreas is great: the outflow of bile is disrupted, the discharge of pancreatic juice may stop.

Bile can enter the duct of the gland with severe inflammation in it.

Where is the pancreas and gall bladder?

The pancreas (pancreas) is retroperitoneal, therefore, it is not possible to palpate during examination. In the projection onto the front wall of the abdomen, it is displayed 5-10 cm above the navel, the body is shifted to the left of the midline, the tail goes to the left hypochondrium.

The gland is located almost horizontally, the head below is covered by a loop of the duodenum in the form of a horseshoe, directly adjacent to the stomach from above (separated by a peritoneum from it), the tail is directed to the left, bent upward and is in contact with the spleen and the angle of the transverse colon.

On the right it borders on the liver, on the bottom - on the small and part of the transverse colon, on the back - on the left adrenal gland and part of the left kidney. The pancreas is closely adjacent to the posterior abdominal wall at the level of the last thoracic and first lumbar vertebrae.

Only in the supine position is the pancreas under the stomach.

The gallbladder (GI) is located in the right hypochondrium of the abdominal cavity under the liver, in a special depression. It is associated with the liver with a thin connective tissue. Located slightly to the right of the KDP.

It has the shape of a pear: its wide part (bottom) emerges from under the liver, and the narrow (neck) smoothly passes into the cystic duct 3-4 cm long, connecting with the hepatic, forming a bile duct.

Then it connects to the Wingsung duct of the pancreas, and in some cases it independently opens into the lumen of the duodenum. GI also has access to the colon.

The functions of the pancreas and gall bladder in the body

The functions that are performed by the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract are aimed at the maximum digestion of incoming food. The role of these organs in the digestion process is different, but their general activity involves the breakdown of food components and the provision of the body with necessary substances and energy.

The pancreas, by virtue of its structure, is intended for the synthesis of pancreatic juice, which includes 20 enzymes, combined in 3 groups:

  • lipase - breaks down fats,
  • protease - proteins,
  • amylase - carbohydrates.

These enzymes are produced in an inactive form. Their structure changes under the influence of the enzyme of the duodenum - enterokinase.

It is secreted when a food lump enters the stomach and becomes active, in turn, in the presence of bile, turning trypsinogen (protease) into trypsin.

With his participation, other pancreatic enzymes are also activated, which enter the intestinal lumen when food enters there.

Bile is a catalyst for pancreatic enzymes and duodenum. The qualitative composition and amount of enzymes secreted depends on the food consumed.

A pancreas produces 1.5−2 l of pancreatic juice per day. Through the small ducts of the acini (islets consisting of glandular cells with their own ducts and blood vessels), the secret enters the larger excretory channels, through which it flows into the main duct, the Wirsungs. Through it flows into the small intestine in small portions. The required amount of pancreatic secretion is regulated by the sphincter of Oddi.

The main functions of the IP:

  • accumulation of bile produced by the liver,
  • implementation and control of its receipt in the KDP.

Bile is produced by the liver constantly. And also, it continuously enters the hepatic duct and gastrointestinal tract.

Up to 50 ml of bile can accumulate in the bladder (this is its volume), which, if necessary, due to the contraction of the muscular walls, enters through the excretory and common bile duct into the duodenum.

A functional feature of the gallbladder is the ability to concentrate bile so that in its space of 50 ml it accumulates in a highly concentrated form corresponding to a volume of 1 liter or more.

Bile and bile pigments are involved in the breakdown and absorption of lipids.

The output of the contents of the gastrointestinal tract is associated with the digestive process and is controlled by the autonomic nervous system: the organ receives a signal about the entry of a food lump (chyme) into the duodenum and decreases, throwing the secret into the duct. This occurs in response to fatty foods.

Otherwise, with continuous entry into the intestines (in the absence of food and intestinal contents), the organ mucosa would be damaged under the influence of acids.

GI is not an indispensable organ: after its resection, the function of the accumulation of bile performs the duodenum.

Where is the pancreas located?

The anatomical location of the pancreas is in the abdominal cavity, at the level I - II of the lumbar vertebrae. The organ fits snugly to the back of the stomach. The duodenum goes around the pancreas in the form of a “horseshoe”. In an adult, the size of the pancreas is 20 - 25 cm, weight - 70 - 80 grams.

The organ has 3 departments: the head, body and tail.The head is located near the bile duct, the body is behind the stomach and slightly below it, near the transverse colon, the tail is near the spleen. When projected onto the front surface of the abdominal wall of iron, it is located above the navel of 5 to 10 cm. The head is on the right side of the midline, the tail goes under the left hypochondrium.

The two most important pancreatic functions are exocrine and endocrine. The exocrine function consists in the production (secretion) of pancreatic juice necessary for the digestion of food in the duodenum. Digestive enzymes of pancreatic juice secreted by the pancreas:

  • trypsin and chymotrypsin involved in protein digestion,
  • lactase and amylases necessary for the breakdown of carbohydrates,
  • lipases that break down bile fats already exposed to bile.

In addition to enzymes, pancreatic juice contains substances that neutralize the acidic environment of gastric juice to protect the intestinal mucosa from acid exposure. The endocrine function of the gland consists in the production of insulin and glucagon - hormones that are involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Under the influence of insulin, glucose in the blood decreases, under the influence of glucagon it rises. At the norm of insulin and glucagon, carbohydrate metabolism proceeds adequately, with shifts - diabetes can occur.

Pain in the abdomen and symptoms of digestive disorders occur with various diseases. It is important to understand when painful manifestations are associated with pathology of the pancreas, and take the necessary measures in time.

The main symptoms of pancreatic disease

Any problems associated with decreased pancreatic enzyme production are accompanied by typical symptoms. The most common symptoms are pain and indigestion. In women and men, the symptoms are the same. Depending on the severity of the process, the intensity of pain, as well as the severity of dyspeptic phenomena, can be different. The most indicative disorders in violation of the pancreas:

  • the presence of pain, localization of pain - the upper part of the abdominal cavity, left hypochondrium, pain can be associated or not related to food intake,
  • frequent nausea, vomiting is possible,
  • impaired appetite downward until the complete absence,
  • bloating and rumbling in the stomach (flatulence),
  • disorders of the stool, more often - diarrhea, in the feces there may be impurities of undigested fibers, fat,
  • signs of intoxication (heart palpitations, fatigue, general weakness, sweating, headaches),
  • enlarged liver
  • discoloration of the skin (jaundice), often in the area of ​​the projection of the pancreas.

Diseases associated with decreased production of enzymes:

  • acute pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas, often accompanied by edema),
  • chronic pancreatitis,
  • tumor processes in the pancreas,
  • development of diabetes
  • pancreatic necrosis.

How does the pancreas hurt in humans?

Pain arising from changes in the pancreas can be of a different nature - pulling blunt or cutting acute, up to dagger (with peritonitis). It depends on the nature and extent of the lesion of the gland, as well as on the involvement of the peritoneal sheets (peritonitis) in the inflammatory process.

Acute pancreatitis with edema is characterized by a sharp sudden pain, often encircling, spreading to the upper abdomen, left side and lumbar region. Because of the edema, a feeling of fullness appears in the location of the pancreas, pressure on the inner surface of the ribs. In such cases, the use of antispasmodics is ineffective. The pain can be slightly reduced only in a sitting position with the body tilted forward and to the bottom.

At the height of the pain (and sometimes even before it occurs), vomiting can begin, which is repeated several times and does not always bring relief. The contents of the vomit may be eaten by food or bile (in the case of an empty stomach), the taste may be sour or bitter.

Similar symptoms (sharp pain, vomiting) can be observed with exacerbations of osteochondrosis in the lumbar spine, with kidney diseases and shingles. An additional study will help determine the suspicion of pancreatitis. With lumbar osteochondrosis, soreness of the vertebrae is observed upon palpation, with problems with the kidneys - an increase in pain when striking the lower back, with shingles there is a characteristic rash on the skin. Pancreatitis is characterized by the absence of all of these symptoms.

Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by pain of somewhat lesser intensity, and they occur most often due to violations of the diet. The danger of exacerbations of chronic pancreatitis is the occurrence of pancreatic tumors, including malignant (cancer).

Stories of our readers

I got rid of digestive problems at home. It has been a month since I forgot about the terrible pain in the stomach and intestines. Heartburn and nausea after eating, constant diarrhea no longer bother. Oh, how much I tried everything - nothing helped. How many times I went to the clinic, but I was prescribed useless drugs again and again, and when I returned, the doctors simply shrugged. Finally, I dealt with digestive problems, and all thanks to this article. Everyone who has digestive problems should definitely read!

Diagnostics

Treatment should be prescribed by a specialist doctor after a thorough diagnosis. In case of a pain attack, you must contact a medical institution for qualified help. It is necessary to carry out:

1. Laboratory research:

  • general and detailed blood test,
  • the level of pancreatic enzymes in the blood serum,
  • biochemical blood tests for glucose, the activity of liver enzymes and bilirubin,
  • analysis of urine for amylase level,
  • analysis of feces for the level of enzymes and fats.


2. Ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity to identify the state of the structure, determine the contours of the pancreas, patency of the bile ducts, the presence or absence of stones in the gallbladder or ducts.

3. Radiography - in the absence of the ability to conduct an ultrasound for the same purpose.

4. Computed tomography or MRI to obtain more accurate data on the state of the abdominal organs.

How to treat pancreatic diseases?

After a thorough examination, even if emergency surgery is not required, hospitalization is necessary. An acute attack of pancreatitis is treated in a hospital by creating rest in compliance with bed rest. Complete fasting is prescribed for 1 to 2 days. Injectable solutions of painkillers and antispasmodics (Baralgin, Platifillin), anticholinergics (Atropine) are introduced. An ice bladder is applied several times for 0.5 hours to the epigastric region.

Which medications to take is decided by the attending physician. Preparations that reduce the enzymatic activity of the pancreas (Trasilol, Contrical, Gordox, Aprotinin) are administered intravenously. For the prevention of dehydration, special saline solutions are administered dropwise at the dosage prescribed by the doctor. After the removal of the acute symptoms, a gentle special diet and enzyme replacement therapy are prescribed - oral preparations that improve digestion (Creon, Mezim-forte, Pancreatin, Panzinorm, Festal, Enzistal).

How to eat?

In the acute period of the disease, weak broths and decoctions, cereals on the water are allowed, food is either boiled or steamed:

In the future, for cooking, you should use meat, fish, poultry with a low fat content. Sour-milk products, eggs, compotes, jelly are gradually introduced into the diet. A strict diet is prescribed for 3 months. During periods of remission of chronic pancreatitis, the diet should also be followed. Individual recommendations are best obtained from your doctor.

Recommended meat dishes from lean meats, poultry, especially - rabbit meat, veal. Dairy products should be low in fat. Soups are best prepared on vegetable broths. Of the drinks, herbal decoctions, compotes, teas, jelly are useful. In chronic pancreatitis, as well as after an acute illness, fractional nutrition is necessary: ​​from 6 to 8 times a day in small portions.

What to exclude from the diet?

The following foods and drinks are strictly contraindicated with pancreatic problems:

  • alcohol,
  • carbonated drinks,
  • coffee and cocoa
  • sweet juices
  • offal,
  • smoked meats
  • spicy, salty, pickled, fried foods,
  • chocolate and pastries, especially those with a high fat content (pastries and cream cakes).

Today I want to continue talking with you about gallstone disease and pancreatitis, about the gall bladder and pancreas. On the close connection between these diseases and these organs.

You know, this close connection was discovered by scientists a long time ago. And immediately the question arose: why? Yes, close proximity, common origin, general “work”. All this, of course, explains a lot. And yet: what mechanisms lead to the fact that in diseases of the gallbladder, as a rule, the pancreas suffers, and cholelithiasis very often leads to pancreatitis? There were many interesting studies, exciting and unexpected discoveries, many victories and disappointments. And the result? And the result is great knowledge. And I want to tell you about him today.

And I will tell you about the so-called "theory of the common channel." As I wrote earlier, the main bile duct and the main duct of the pancreas flow into the duodenum. And they fall into it in the same place - Vater's nipple. But scientists have found that there are several options for the flow of these ducts into the duodenum.

Yes, there are several options. But for us it will be enough to divide all of these options into two types. The first is when the ducts merge with each other and flow into the intestine with one hole before they enter the intestine. And the second - when the ducts enter the intestine separately from each other, each opening into the intestine with its own hole. Look at the diagram to make it clearer what I'm talking about.

And now the question is: guess which option suggests the closest relationship between the gallbladder and pancreas? In which of the options is cholelithiasis most often complicated by pancreatitis and vice versa? I think the answer is not complicated. Of course, at the first.

Yes, scientists came to this conclusion and their guesses were confirmed experimentally. And so the theory of the “common channel” was born. Why was she called that? Because scientists have come to the conclusion that most often gallstone disease leads to pancreatitis when the ducts merge with each other even before they enter the intestines. Then, when these two important ducts, merging, form one common channel. I note right away that these ducts merge with each other in more than 70% of cases.

How does damage to the pancreas occur in cholelithiasis?

You see, what’s the matter, when merging it turns out that both of these ducts communicate with each other. And now imagine a situation when a stone, leaving the gallbladder, passing the cystic duct and common bile duct, “stuck” where both ducts merged into one, flow into the duodenum. And this, by the way, happens quite often. Because the place where the ducts enter the intestines is the bottleneck in all the bile ducts. What happens next?

The liver continues to produce bile. The pancreas also continues to work and develop its secret. These fluids enter the canals, and they cannot exit the intestines: the stone blocked the path. The secrets of both glands accumulate, and the pressure in the ducts rises sharply. And this, sooner or later, leads to rupture of the ducts. Tear, of course, the smallest and most fragile ducts. About what happens in this case with the liver, we already spoke with you in the article "Gallstone disease and ... jaundice." Now we will begin to talk about what is happening in this situation with the pancreas.

Rupture of the pancreatic ducts leads to the fact that the contents of the duct go into the tissue of the gland. In addition, nearby gland cells and blood vessels are torn. But what is in the ducts of the gland? Enzymes that break down proteins, fats and carbohydrates. That is, what the pancreas itself consists of. True, in the ducts, these enzymes are inactive. But with trauma and rupture of pancreatic cells, these enzymes are activated. And they start to work. The process of self-digestion of the gland starts. Acute pancreatitis and pancreatic necrosis develops: the most serious and dangerous disease!

Here is such a mechanism for pancreatic damage and the development of acute pancreatitis in cholelithiasis. As you can see, it is the gallbladder stones (cholelithiasis) that caused pancreatitis in this case. It was the exit of the stone from the gallbladder and the obstruction of the ducts that caused the catastrophe.

Therefore, I again and again urge you to think about whether it is worth storing the gall bladder with stones that give bouts of hepatic colic and at any time can lead to acute pancreatitis and pancreatic necrosis. Should I try to “expel” stones from the gallbladder?

After all, no one knows how these stones will behave during the so-called “persecution”. No one knows if they will slip into the duodenum or get stuck along the road, causing serious complications.

In conclusion, I want to say that, of course, pancreatitis does not always occur due to the gallstone disease. There are other reasons. But you and I are interested in precisely cholelithiasis, therefore we will not discuss other reasons here.

I hope that my information will help you in understanding your illness, help you make the right decision and save you from many mistakes! Health to you and well-being! Believe me, all this is in your hands!

We go through the anatomy of the human body back in school at the lessons of the same name. But few of us remember what the proper structure of the body, organs and systems of our body is. Indeed, often only those of classmates who purposefully go to enroll in a medical university memorize all studied sections and paragraphs of this school subject. only when faced with any health problems, we begin to feverishly recall or look in the directories for the place where it hurts. Therefore, it will not be out of place to recall the location of the pancreas, gall bladder, about which we only suspect problems when the disease goes far enough.

Silence among the internal organs

The gallbladder and pancreas interact with each other, however, like most of the internal organs and systems of our body. At the very first problems, some of them begin to make themselves felt with pain and discomfort. But here are some organs - the "silent" who tolerate our careless and inattentive attitude to them to the last. Such "silent silent" can include the pancreas. She begins to signal about her dysfunction already when the problem-illness has gone far enough. Therefore, you need to be careful about your body, follow the well-known rules of nutrition and life, in order to help your body stay healthy and healthy for as long as possible.

The pancreas also refers to the organs of the digestive system.

The pancreas by its name tells about the location - under the stomach, or rather "behind" the stomach, on the back wall of the retroperitoneal space. It is a lobed formation, closely adjacent to the duodenum, located almost horizontally. The length of the pancreas in an adult can reach up to 22 centimeters.

The gall bladder is a hollow, elongated organ resembling a sac. It is located on the underside of the liver.

Pancreatic diseases

The pancreas is an important organ in our body. But even if some kind of malfunction occurs in her work, then she does not immediately let know about it. and the symptomatology of pancreatic problems often makes us imply any other problems. Most often speaking about diseases of the pancreas, we mean inflammatory processes. They can occur in both acute and chronic forms. Acute is characterized by severe girdle pain. But chronic inflammation of the pancreas can occur in the form of constipation, diarrhea, nausea. Often a person who observes such symptoms in himself does not suspect that they are caused by abnormalities in the pancreas, and therefore a visit to a doctor often occurs in a rather neglected state.

Knowing that stones in the gall and pancreas (pancreas) can provoke a blockage of the duct that flows into the duodenum, one should be able to recognize the symptoms and know the causes of the pathology. This will help to start treatment on time and prevent the development of complications that can lead to death.

The relationship between gallstone disease and the formation of stones in the pancreas

As a result of pathologies of the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, hormonal or metabolic disorders, as well as cholelithiasis, cholelithiasis manifests diffuse changes in the pancreas. This leads to inflammation, and in some cases, the formation of calculi. They include insoluble calcium compounds with metal salts or organic components.

Most often, stones are arranged in pairs or in large clusters. Their sizes range from 0.5 mm to 5 cm, and the shape is round, oval or irregular.

The formation of calculi in the pancreatic ducts

Formation stages

Clinicians distinguish three stages of development of calculi in the pancreas:

  1. The first phase is characterized by an increase in the concentration and viscosity of pancreatic juice, leading to the appearance of insoluble conglomerates of a protein nature.
  2. During the second phase, pancreatic juice thickening continues, and calcium salts are adsorbed on the formed protein structures. Similar processes occur in the parenchyma of the organ, there are foci of necrosis, affecting the islets of Langerhans. This leads to a decrease in pancreas production of hormones and enzymes involved in the breakdown of food. A particular danger is the inhibition of insulin synthesis, leading to the manifestation of secondary diabetes mellitus.
  3. At the third stage, an inflammatory factor joins the calcification process. The outflow of gland secretion is impaired, and clinical signs of pancreolithiasis are manifested. Often during this period, an infection of the organ occurs, exacerbating the course of the disease.

The most dangerous are stones that are stuck in the pancreatic duct and impede the free passage of a secret that begins to digest the tissues of the organ itself.

Causes of

Diffuse pancreatic changes provoke: cholelithiasis, hepatitis, mumps, ulcerative colitis, gastritis and other diseases of various nature.

Also, the causative factors causing stagnation of pancreatic juice and the formation of calculi include:

  • benign and malignant tumors,
  • duodenal inflammation,
  • pancreatic cysts,
  • violation of calcium-phosphorus metabolism,
  • infectious diseases,
  • dysfunction of the parathyroid gland.

Scientists have conducted research on how the stones in the gallbladder affect the pancreas. It was found that cholelithiasis is a common cause of pancreatitis, which contributes to a thickening of the secretion and the formation of calcifications.

A significant role in the appearance of stones in the pancreas is given to malnutrition and excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages.

A lot of fatty, fried, spicy and sweet foods creates an increased load on the organ, its normal functioning is disrupted, and favorable conditions are created for the progression of inflammatory processes and the formation of insoluble compounds.

Gallbladder calculi

The processes of stone formation in the gall and pancreas are quite similar. With inflammatory processes in the liver and bile ducts, the motor activity of the gallbladder decreases, which provokes stagnation of bile and its thickening. It accumulates cholesterol, calcium salts and bilirubin, which leads to the formation of insoluble stones.

How to diagnose and distinguish pathologies?

Pathologies of the pancreas and gall bladder in their clinical symptoms have much in common. With pancreatitis, as with inflammation in the GP, it can hurt in the right hypochondrium. The pains become intense after a violation of the diet and eating fatty, spicy, fried foods, alcohol, even in small quantities.

Physical activity and stress can also cause discomfort and pain in the hypochondria with radiation to the arm, shoulder, lower back, with pancreatitis, they become girdle.

Dyspeptic manifestations appear:

There is a symptomatology of asthenic syndrome:

  • severe weakness
  • fatigue
  • bad dream
  • lack of appetite.

It is sometimes difficult to differentiate the exacerbation of the chronic inflammatory process in the gland and the prostate due to the similarity of the clinical picture, which can be associated with each of the digestive organs with a certain history. Features with pancreatitis are:

  • pancreatic diarrhea - greasy greyish frequent stool with a fetid odor and the remnants of undigested food (one of the first manifestations of the disease),
  • repeated vomiting, which does not bring relief,
  • pains of various localization.

Pathology of the biliary tract, in addition to the listed symptoms, is manifested by biliary hypertension caused by stagnation of bile. It appears:

  • yellowness of the skin and mucous membranes,
  • itchy skin
  • an increase in the spleen, and subsequently hypersplenism syndrome (anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia),
  • ascites in severe cases without treatment.

Clinical manifestations are not enough to clarify the affected organ. The patient needs to be examined in detail, to check the functions of the gallbladder and pancreas. To exclude volumetric processes, it is necessary to check the state of the organ using functional studies:

  • Ultrasound
  • MRI
  • CT
  • splenoportography - radiography of the vessels of the portal system with contrast,
  • Dopplerography of the vessels of the liver.

These methods make it possible to determine the state of the parenchyma and the borders of the pancreas, walls, the presence of calculi, polyps, and other formations in the pancreas.

Laboratory studies include a number of indicators that need to be checked to clarify the diagnosis:

  • general clinical blood test,
  • blood sugar
  • diastasis of urine and blood,
  • bilirubin (general, direct, indirect),
  • total protein and its fractions,
  • cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase,
  • coagulogram.

The doctor individually prescribes specific examinations taking into account complaints, medical history, objective status and severity of the condition in which the patient turned. Based on the data obtained, medicines are prescribed or the question of other treatment methods is being decided.

What effect do organs have on each other?

Since the organs of the digestive system are closely interconnected, the pathology of any of them cannot proceed in isolation. This is especially true of cholelithiasis - cholelithiasis, which in its prevalence in recent years is not inferior to heart disease.

When obstructing the common duct with a stone, a large amount of pancreatic secretion and bile accumulates not only in the common ducts, but also in small pancreatic canals. The pressure in them rises sharply as the liver and pancreas continue to function and produce pancreatic juice and bile.

Small and fragile pancreatic ducts rupture, their contents enter the organ parenchyma. At the same time, tissue cells and nearby vessels are damaged.

In case of trauma (rupture of the ducts), enzymes are activated, the process of self-digestion of the gland begins in the parenchyma - pancreatitis develops, which can be complicated by massive pancreatic necrosis. At the same time, the walls of the pancreas become inflamed, leading to cholecystitis, stagnation of bile, hypersplenism, and ascites.

Therefore, with the first symptoms, even unexpressed and, it seems, insignificant, you can not self-medicate and apply alternative methods. Contact a specialist immediately.

How will organs work if one of them is resected?

The gall bladder is an auxiliary organ, therefore, with pathological formations or a pronounced inflammatory process (phlegmonous or gangrenous cholecystitis), which is accompanied by pancreatitis, cholecystectomy is indicated. Otherwise, it will cause the development of pancreatic necrosis - a life-threatening condition with an unfavorable prognosis.

The earlier the operation is performed, the lower the risk of developing pancreatitis. The functions of the pancreas are taken by the duodenum: bile produced by the liver enters its lumen. This happens constantly, as bile is produced, and not at the time of eating.

Therefore, the duodenal mucosa is affected, microflora are upset in the large intestine, which leads to stool disorders (constipation or diarrhea), and pancreatitis can develop.

When removing the pancreas or its affected part, replacement therapy is prescribed: the patient takes sugar-lowering drugs with existing diabetes mellitus or enzymes.

The dosage is determined by the endocrinologist or gastroenterologist individually in each case. Acceptance of these drugs is necessary for a long time (months, years, sometimes - all my life).

In addition to drug therapy, a person must follow a strict diet: table No. 9 for diabetes, table No. 5 for pancreatitis.

In order to avoid serious consequences and lifelong intake of drugs with a strict diet, you need to protect your health, abandon bad habits and consult a doctor on time.

Characteristic symptoms of gallbladder and pancreas diseases

Symptoms of gallbladder and pancreas disease are very similar. Moreover, often diseases of these organs occur together, complementing and provoking each other.

In general, both joint diseases and diseases of each organ individually are quite dangerous pathologies that are fraught with serious consequences.

In case of manifestation of biliary symptoms, you should consult a specialist as soon as possible, because only he can determine the pathology and clarify its localization.

Specificity of organs

Although the gall bladder and pancreas perform various functions in the digestive system, they can significantly affect each other.

The pancreas provides the production of pancreatic juice, rich in enzymes and hormones (insulin and glucagon), secreted into the blood. With the development of the inflammatory process in this gland, the outflow of produced enzymes is disrupted.

Their excess enters the lumen of the gallbladder, which causes the spread of the inflammatory reaction to this organ (cholecystitis).

Cyst formation

The cyst in the pancreas looks like a capsule filled with a liquid composition. Such formations can appear anywhere in the gland and, as a rule, are the result of an acute attack of pancreatitis.

At the initial stage, they do not manifest themselves, but as they grow, they begin to exert a compression effect on nearby organs. This process provokes the following symptoms: pain in the upper abdomen, digestion failures, weight loss.

The main treatment is surgery.

Stones in the pancreas are rarely detected and occur in the head. Symptom of their appearance in the parenchyma is pain in the upper abdomen, extending to the back. The pain syndrome can have a character of an attack with amplification shortly after a meal. If a stone moves into the bile duct, signs of obstructive jaundice are noticeable.

In general, if you compare the main symptoms of diseases of the pancreas and gall bladder, you can see a lot of similarities. Symptoms of pathologies can occur in a patient at the same time. Only a specialist can establish the real clinical picture after conducting appropriate examinations. Self-medication can cause a negative effect.

Is the gallbladder and pancreas the same thing or not?

Although these organs are separate components of the digestive system, there is a close relationship between them. Often, pathological processes in one of the organs lead to the appearance of diseases in the second. For example, gallstone disease often leads to the development of pancreatitis - inflammation of the pancreatic tissue.

In this regard, there is a need to find out where the gallbladder and pancreas are located, how they interact and how serious pathologies can be prevented.

Theory of the "common channel"

To understand what unites the stones in the gallbladder and pancreatitis, as well as calculi in the pancreas, it is worth going a little deeper into the anatomy of these organs.

Pancreatitis and the formation of stones in the pancreas can be caused by blockage of the bile ducts

In 70% of the world's population, the ducts of the pancreas and gall bladder are connected even before flowing into the duodenum 12, forming a single channel. Its blockage can cause a stone that has left the gall. In this case, the production of bile, amylase, lipase, insulin and other enzymes in the glands does not stop. They accumulate in the common channel, causing rupture of small ducts, vessels and pancreatic parenchyma. Intended for the breakdown of nutrients, these active substances continue to function. But now they are already "digesting" not the contents of the intestine, but the gland itself, causing necrosis of its tissues.

Symptoms of Disease

Concrements in the pancreas, pancreatitis and cholelithiasis have similar clinical manifestations, which are expressed by the following symptoms:

  • intense pain in the upper middle abdomen, lasting from 10-15 minutes to several hours,
  • nausea,
  • light color of feces.

The interval between such attacks ranges from several days to several years. But as the disease progresses and the number of stones increases, it will decrease.

If there is a blockage of the duct with stones, then obstructive jaundice occurs, which is manifested by yellowing of the visible mucous membranes, cornea of ​​the eyes, and later on of the skin.

Blockage of the duct can lead to its rupture with subsequent leakage of bile and pancreatic juice. In this case, the patient can save only timely surgical intervention.

Dissolution of calculi with drugs

There are pharmacological preparations (chenodeoxycholic and ursodeoxycholic acid), which, after prolonged use, crush the stones and remove them through the intestinal cavity. But such a procedure is carried out for 1.5-2 years only under the strict supervision of a doctor. In addition, this method has contraindications, which include:

  • chronic inflammatory processes in the liver or pancreas,
  • pathology of the kidneys and urinary system,
  • exacerbation of ulcerative gastritis and colitis,
  • pregnancy,
  • frequent diarrhea.

Therapy is advisable in the presence of single stones of small diameter, in addition, the contractile functions of the affected organ should be preserved by 50%.

Together with “solvents”, patients are prescribed:

The interaction of the gallbladder and pancreas

Although the pancreas and gall bladder are separate links in the gastrointestinal tract, there is a close relationship between them. Most often, the pathology of one organ leads to manifestations of the disease in another. For example, gallstone disease often causes pancreatitis.

Therefore, you need to know how the organs are located, how they affect each other, and also how to avoid serious pathologies of these organs.

Location and Communication

These organs are located close to each other. However, this is not the most important thing, it is important that the bile duct, together with the main duct of the pancreas, is connected in the cavity of the duodenum.

The bile duct on the way to the intestine penetrates the pancreatic head, where it merges with its duct, and connected together, they open in the wall of the duodenum.

But there are also developmental pathologies when the ducts do not merge into one. They open, but just one next to the other - two holes located on the Vater's nipple.

Functional connection

The pancreas and pancreas “work” for the benefit of the common cause. After all, the pancreas can be considered the most responsible gland for digestion.

In addition to it, there are other glands involved in digestion: in the thickness of the stomach, small and large intestines, as well as salivary. The enzymes produced are needed for the breakdown of: proteins, carbohydrates, fats, which come with food.

The process of splitting and digestion just happens in the duodenum. After all, it receives pancreatic enzymes along the main duct. But most of the substances enter the intestine in an inactive state.

Enzymes become active only in the duodenum, and this happens with the help of bile. But why are the intestinal walls not digested? Because it has additional protection against the aggressive effects of the secret of the pancreas and bile.

Therefore, only in the duodenum should the ducts of two organs open, and only in it should digestion of food begin.

The relationship between these two bodies is colossal and very close, which is aimed at ensuring a single function.

Therefore, it is not worth it to say that the pathology of one organ affects the condition of another organ. Therefore, cholelithiasis can easily cause pancreatic disease.

Diagnostic Indicators

In order to exclude such a pathology as neoplasms, the following examinations should be carried out:

  • Ultrasound
  • CT or MRI
  • dopplerography of the liver vessels,
  • splenoportography - x-ray with the introduction of contrast into the portal vessels.

These methods make it possible to assess the functional state of organ tissues, to determine the presence of inclusions: stones, polyps, and other formations.

Laboratory diagnostics also includes a large set of indicators that should be used to verify the "diagnosis":

  • total bilirubin (fractions - direct / indirect),
  • cholesterol,
  • urine diastasis,
  • blood amylase
  • general blood count indicators,
  • alkaline phosphatase,
  • blood glucose
  • total protein (alpha, beta, gamma fraction of globulins),
  • coagulogram indicators.

Given the complaints, medical history, physical examination data and severity of the condition, the doctor will select a range of individual studies. And only on the basis of the accepted results can any medications be prescribed or a decision can be made about other methods of therapy.

The gall bladder is an organ that performs an auxiliary function, therefore, in the presence of calculi, as well as the development of pathology (gangrenous or phlegmonous lesions), combined with pancreatitis, it is worth performing cholecystectomy.

Otherwise, the appearance of bile in the pancreas can lead to pancreatic necrosis - a life-threatening condition that can lead to death.

Therefore, an early start of the operation guarantees minimal risks of developing pancreatic necrosis. After surgery, the duodenum acquires the functions of the intestinal tract - while the bile formed by the liver enters the intestine immediately. And this process becomes constant and independent of food intake.

Therefore, the duodenal mucosa suffers every minute, which leads to dysfunction of microflora in the intestinal loops. This phenomenon is manifested by diarrhea or constipation, and can also contribute to the development of pancreatitis.

If the pancreas or its affected part is removed, then the patient is prescribed replacement therapy: enzymes and insulin lowering drugs. The dosage should be selected only by an endocrinologist or gastroenterologist, because each case of the disease is unique.

The use of drug therapy can drag on for years, and maybe even a lifetime. But, besides this, you need to adhere to a strict diet: with insulin deficiency - diet No. 9, with enzymatic insufficiency - diet No. 5.

But in order to isolate oneself from lifelong taking medications, as well as serious consequences, one must strictly follow a diet, protect health and completely abandon addictions. And make it a habit to regularly consult a doctor.

Complications

Any malfunction in the work of one organ can lead to the development of new diseases. So, acute pancreatitis can provoke such complications:

  • internal bleeding as a result of a stomach ulcer or duodenum,
  • vascular thrombosis,
  • dry pleurisy, respiratory failure,
  • pneumonia,
  • liver failure,
  • coronary heart disease,
  • chronic kidney disease
  • reactive psychoses
  • tachycardia,
  • purulent accumulations in the peritoneum,
  • blood poisoning,
  • peritonitis.

Deviations of the gallbladder are accompanied by:

  • purulent education
  • perforation of the walls of the organ,
  • an outflow of inflammatory exudate into the peritoneum,
  • peritonitis,
  • sepsis,
  • acute inflammation of the pancreas.

Pathologies of two organs can lead to the development of cancer, disruption of the functioning of neighboring organs, scarring of the walls of organs at the site of a defect from the secretion of the gland. Subsequently, this leads to necrosis (tissue death), which disrupts chemical reactions throughout the body.

Gall bladder, pancreas: location, function, disease

We go through the anatomy of the human body back in school at the lessons of the same name. But few of us remember what the proper structure of the body, organs and systems of our body is.

Indeed, often only those of classmates who purposefully go to enroll in a medical university memorize all studied sections and paragraphs of this school subject. only when faced with any health problems, we begin to feverishly recall or look in the directories for the place where it hurts.

Therefore, it will not be out of place to recall the location of the pancreas, gall bladder, about which we only suspect problems when the disease goes far enough.

Watch the video: Imaging of Bile Duct andor Pancreas (March 2020).