The endocrine system performs an extremely important role in the human body, regulating virtually all life processes. Endocrine glands (endocrine glands) produce special biologically active substances - hormones, which enter the bloodstream and are transferred to the target organs, or, as they are also called, target organs. Disorders of this mechanism are fraught with the development of serious chronic pathologies.
Meanwhile, the lack or excess of any hormone is manifested by painful symptoms is not always. People often confuse the signs of endocrine system malfunction with a slight indisposition and start self-treatment or ignore the deterioration of health altogether, thereby triggering the disease and reducing the chances of recovery. We decided to acquaint readers with the symptoms that require immediate consultation of the endocrinologist.
Unpleasant sensations when swallowing, burning or sore throat, changes in the tone of voice, most of us are used to associate with a cold or seasonal viral infections. If problems of this kind are not accompanied by a strong increase in body temperature, we often do not even turn to the therapist, confident that we will be able to cope with the ailment with the help of lollipops or throats. But the regular occurrence of these symptoms may indicate a malfunction of the thyroid gland. For example, the lesion of the vocal cords and hoarseness of the voice sometimes develop as a result of hypothyroidism, and the degeneration of the tissues of the gland with the appearance of nodules leads to a sore throat.
Active hair loss or rapid hair growth
The growth rate of hair on the head and body is closely related to the hormonal background. Thus, excessive body hair and hair loss in the forehead area of the fair sex testifies to the disruption of the female sex glands and a shift in balance towards the predominance of male hormones.
Signs of the pathological process should not be confused with a natural phenomenon - daily loss of a small amount of hair.
Sharp change in body weight
The intensity of metabolism is regulated by the coordinated work of the pituitary, adrenal glands and pancreas. When these organs function normally, the human body weight remains constant or changes gradually, over a long time. Rapid weight gain, sudden weight loss may indicate the presence of endocrine pathologies. If at the same time there are unjustified changes in appetite, a feeling of dry mouth and constant thirst, frequent urination, skin itching, burning and pain in the calves, visual acuity decreases - this complex of symptoms indicates a violation of carbohydrate metabolism and, possibly, the development of diabetes.
Hyperfunction of the thyroid gland is usually accompanied by a sharp increase in appetite in combination with increased stool and weight loss. Symptoms of hypothyroidism are swelling and weight gain associated with slowing down of metabolic processes.
The human nervous system is sensitive to hormonal disruptions. Hormonal disorders can be manifested by irritability, excessive irritability, inexplicable changeability of mood (sudden tearfulness, touchiness, or irrepressible, somewhat hysterical gaiety).
This very rarely causes visits to the doctor: most people tend to explain emotional drops in overwork, stress, domestic or official troubles.
This is a common symptom of hypothyroidism. Patients complain about the inability to concentrate even on familiar tasks, difficulty switching attention, slower perception of information. They have a feeling of constant drowsiness, unwillingness to engage in daily activities, anxiety, fear of something not to have time in combination with low efficiency.
When endocrine disorders can be observed excessive sweating, causeless alternation of raising and lowering body temperature (throws it in the heat, then in the cold), headaches, heart rate failures. Women often complain about the instability of the menstrual cycle. Symptoms usually appear in the complex.
Symptoms of abnormalities of the endocrine glands, as a rule, at first do not greatly reduce the quality of life of the patient, rather appear as a mild but compulsive ailment. To treat such a situation without due attention is dangerous: if the disease becomes chronic, it will be extremely difficult to recover. Therefore, having noticed the described signs in yourself, it is necessary to consult with the endocrinologist.
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Education: First Moscow State Medical University named after I.М. Sechenov, specialty "General Medicine".
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Endocrinology as a science
How does the human body “know” that a child should grow, food should be digested, and in case of danger, maximum mobilization of many organs and systems is necessary? These parameters of our life are regulated differently - for example, with the help of hormones.
These complex chemical compounds are produced by the endocrine glands, also called endocrine glands.
Endocrinology as a science studies the structure and activity of the endocrine glands, the order of hormone production, their composition, effect on the body. There is a section of practical medicine, it is also called endocrinology. In this case, the pathologies of the endocrine glands, disorders of their functions and methods of treating diseases of this kind are studied.
This science is not yet two hundred years old. It was only in the middle of the XIX century that the presence of special regulatory substances in the blood of people and animals was detected. At the beginning of the 20th century they were called hormones.
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Who is an endocrinologist and what does he treat?
An endocrinologist is a doctor who monitors the condition of all organs of internal secretion. He is engaged in the prevention, detection and treatment of many conditions and diseases that are associated with incorrect hormone production.
Attention endocrinologist require:
- thyroid disease,
- sexual dysfunction
- abnormal activity of the adrenal cortex,
- excess or lack of growth hormone,
- diabetes insipidus
The complexity of the activity of the endocrinologist is in the secrecy of the symptoms. The complexity of the activity of the endocrinologist is in the secrecy of the symptoms of many diseases from his area of specialization. How often go to the doctors when something hurts! But with hormonal disorders, there may be no pain at all.
It happens that external changes occur, but they are often ignored by the people themselves and those around them. And in the body are gradually irreversible changes - for example, due to a violation of metabolic processes.
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So, diabetes occurs in two cases:
- either the human pancreas does not produce insulin,
- or the body does not perceive (in part or in full) this hormone.
Result: the problem of glucose splitting, violation of a number of metabolic processes. Then, if no action is taken, complications ensue. Associated diabetes diseases can turn a practically healthy person into an invalid or cause death.
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Diabetes mellitus is a complex chronic disease. It was described in ancient times and for many centuries was considered a deadly disease. Now a diabetic with type I and II can live long and fully. Restrictions are necessary, but it is possible to comply with them.
In endocrinology, a special section is formed - diabetology. It is needed to fully explore diabetes mellitus itself, the way it manifests itself and how it is complicated. As well as the entire arsenal of maintenance therapy.
Not all localities, clinics and hospitals may be a specialist diabetologist. Then with diabetes, or at least suspicion of it, it is necessary to go to an endocrinologist.
Do not pull up with visits!
If diabetes has already been identified, there is sometimes quite a lot of communication with an endocrinologist. An accurate calendar of visits forms the doctor himself.
It takes into account many parameters:
- type of disease
- how long does it take
- patient's history (condition, age, concomitant diagnoses, and so on).
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For example, if a doctor picks up an insulin drug, calculates and adjusts the dose, the diabetic may need to come to the reception 2-3 times a week. In cases where diabetes is stable, it is better to check your condition every 2-3 months.
It is completely unimportant when was the last visit to the endocrinologist if:
- the prescribed drug is clearly not suitable
- state of health has deteriorated
- There were questions to the doctor.
Diabetes mellitus requires constant monitoring by many doctors. Almost every medical specialist has diabetics among patients. Everything is explained by the long list of complications that diabetes can give. Only good medical observation can prevent the concomitant diseases from occurring and developing.
You can choose a doctor and make an appointment right now:
Sugar 5.8: Is it normal in the blood from a vein?
- Stabilizes sugar levels for long
- Restores insulin production by the pancreas
Is blood sugar 5.8 - is it normal or is it pathological? Normal indicators of glucose in the human body indicate the quality of its work. If there is a deviation upwards or downwards, this signals a pathological condition.
The human body is the most complex mechanism that is known to mankind. And all the processes in it have a close relationship with each other. When one process is violated, this inevitably leads to the fact that pathological failures are observed in other areas.
High blood sugar (hyperglycemic state) can be based on physiological and pathological causes. If stress or nervous tension led to an increase in glucose, then sugar soon normalizes on its own.
However, if the increase in glucose concentration in the body is a result of pathological processes - endocrine disorders, disorder of the functionality of the pancreas, then self-reduction of sugar to the required level will not occur.
So, consider what is considered to be normal indicators of glucose in the human body? What does the indicator of 5.8 units indicate, and what to do in such a situation?
Glucose 5.8 units - norm or pathology?
To know whether the norm is 5.8 units, or is it pathology, it is necessary to clearly know which indicators indicate that everything is normal, which values indicate a borderline, that is, pre-diabetic state, and when diabetes is diagnosed.
The hormone sugar in the body is regulated by the hormone insulin, which is produced by the pancreas. If there are failures in her work, the glucose concentration may increase or decrease.
As mentioned above, an increase in sugar can be observed under the influence of certain physiological causes. For example, a person has experienced severe stress, nervousness, overzealous with physical activity.
In all these cases, with 100% probability of blood sugar will increase, and significantly "jump" the permissible upper limit of normal. Ideally, the glucose content in the body varies from 3.3 to 5.5 units.
In children and adults, the norm will have its own. Consider the data on the example of the table of indicators depending on the age of the person:
- A newborn baby has blood sugar from 2.8 to 4.4 units.
- Starting from one month to 11 years, glucose is 2.9-5.1 units.
Starting at about 11 years of age and up to 60 years, variability of 3.3 to 5.5 units is considered normal indicators of sugar. After the age of 60, the rate will be slightly different, and the upper limit of permissible limits increases to 6.4 units.
Thus, it can be concluded that blood sugar of 5.8 units is an excess of the upper limit of normal values.In this case, we can talk about the pre-diabetic state (the borderline between normal and diabetes).
To refute or confirm a preliminary diagnosis, the doctor prescribes additional research.
Symptoms of high glucose
Practice shows that in the overwhelming majority of cases, blood sugar at the level of 5.8 units will not indicate its increase in symptoms. However, this value gives reason to worry, and it is not excluded that the sugar content will grow steadily.
A high concentration of glucose can be determined in a patient according to certain signs and symptoms. It should be noted that in a certain category of patients the symptoms will be more pronounced, in others, on the contrary, it will be characterized by little or no signs.
In addition, there is such a thing as “sensitivity” to sugar increase. In medical practice, it is noted that some people have a high susceptibility to exceeding the indicators, and an increase of 0.1-0.3 units can lead to a variety of symptoms.
It should be alerted if the patient has the following warning signs:
- Constant weakness, chronic fatigue, lethargy, apathy, general malaise.
- Increased appetite, while there is a decrease in body weight.
- Constant dryness in the mouth, thirst.
- Abundant and frequent urination, an increase in the proportion of urine in 24 hours, nightly visits to the toilet.
- Skin diseases that occur with periodic frequency.
- Itching in the genital area.
- Decreased immune system, frequent infectious diseases, allergic reactions.
- Violation of visual perception.
If a patient develops such symptoms, then it indicates that there is a pathological increase in blood sugar. It should be noted that the patient will not have all the above signs, the clinical pictures are different.
Therefore, if even a few signs appear in an adult or a child, you need to undergo a blood test for sugar.
What needs to be done afterwards will be told by the attending doctor when deciphering the results obtained.
Glucose Tolerance, what does it mean?
When the doctor suspected a pre-diabetic condition or diabetes as a result of the first blood test, he recommends making a sugar tolerance test. Due to such a study, it is possible to identify diabetes mellitus at an early stage, to determine the glucose absorption disorder.
This study allows to determine the degree of carbohydrate metabolism. When the results of the study do not exceed the figure of 7.8 units, then the patient has nothing to worry about, he is all right with his health.
If, after the sugar load, values of 7.8 units and up to 11.1 mmol / l are found, then this is a cause for concern. It is not excluded that it was possible to identify at an early stage a pre-diabetic state, or a latent form of chronic pathology.
In a situation where the test showed a result of more than 11.1 units, then there can be only one conclusion - it is diabetes, as a result of which it is recommended to immediately begin adequate therapy.
Testing for glucose susceptibility is especially important in such situations:
- When a patient has sugar, they are within acceptable limits, but at the same time glucose is periodically observed in urine. Normally, in a healthy person, sugar in the urine should be absent.
- In a situation where there are no signs of sugar disease, but there is an increase in the proportion of urine per day. Against the background of this symptom, blood sugar is on an empty stomach within the established norm.
- The high sugar content during pregnancy indicates the likely development of gestational diabetes.
- When signs of a chronic disease are observed, but there is no glucose in urine, and in the blood sugar does not exceed the upper limit.
- A negative hereditary factor is when a patient's close relatives have diabetes mellitus regardless of its type (symptoms of elevated glucose may be absent). There is evidence that diabetes is inherited.
At risk are women who during pregnancy have gained more than seventeen kilograms, and the weight of the child at birth was 4.5 kilograms.
The test is simple: a patient takes blood, then they give him to drink glucose dissolved in water, then after a certain period of time he takes a biological fluid again.
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Further, the results of the study are compared, which in turn allows us to establish the correct diagnosis.
Determination of glycated hemoglobin
Glycated hemoglobin is a diagnostic study that allows to determine the presence of sugar pathology in patients. Glycated hemoglobin is the substance with which blood sugar is bound.
The level of this indicator is determined as a percentage. The norm is accepted for all. That is, a newborn child, preschool children, adults and people of the elderly age group will have the same values.
This study has many advantages, it is convenient not only for the doctor, but also for the patient. Since blood can be taken at any time of the day, the results will not depend on food intake.
The patient does not need to drink glucose dissolved in water, and then wait a few hours. In addition, the study does not affect physical activity, nervous tension, stress, medication and other circumstances.
A feature of this study is that the test allows you to determine the sugar content in the blood over the last three months.
Despite the effectiveness of the test, its significant advantages and advantages, it has certain disadvantages:
- An expensive procedure when compared with a conventional blood test.
- If a patient has a small amount of thyroid hormones, then you can get the wrong result, and the performance will be higher.
- With a low hemoglobin and anemia in history, distorted results.
- Not every clinic you can pass this test.
If the study results show a glycated hemoglobin level of less than 5.7%, this indicates a minimal risk of developing diabetes. When rates vary from 5.7 to 6.0%, we can say that diabetes is there, but the probability of its development is quite high.
With rates of 6.1-6.4%, we can talk about the pre-diabetic state, and the patient is urgently recommended to change his lifestyle. If the result of the study is higher than 6.5%, then diabetes is diagnosed in advance, additional diagnostic measures will be needed.
Measures to help reduce sugar
So, now it is known that the rate of sugar content in the human body varies from 3.3 to 5.5 units, and these are ideal indicators. If sugar stopped at 5.8 units, this is a reason to reconsider your lifestyle.
It should be immediately noted that such a slight excess is easy to control, and simple preventive measures will not only normalize sugar at the required level, but will not allow it to rise above the permissible limit.
However, if the patient has an increase in glucose concentration, it is recommended that sugar be monitored independently, measured at home. This will help the device, which is called a blood glucose meter. Glucose control will prevent the many possible effects of an increase in sugar.
So what should you do to normalize your performance? It is necessary to pay attention to the following preventive measures:
- Control body weight. If there is overweight or obesity, you need to do everything to lose weight. Change the diet, in particular the calorie content of the dishes, play sports or become addicted to hiking.
- Balance your menu, preferring seasonal vegetables and fruits, give up potatoes, bananas, grapes (there is a lot of glucose in it). Avoid fatty and fried foods, alcoholic and caffeinated beverages, soda.
- Sleep at least 8 hours a day, abandon the exhausting schedule. In addition, it is recommended to go to rest and get up at the same time.
- Bring in your life the optimal physical activity - do morning exercises, run in the morning, go to the gym. Or just walk through the fresh air in quick stride.
Many patients, fearing diabetes mellitus, refuse to eat at all, preferring to starve. And this is fundamentally wrong.
A hunger strike will only aggravate the situation, the metabolic processes become even more disturbed, which in turn will lead to complications and negative consequences.
Self measuring sugar
You can find out the level of glucose in the clinic by donating blood, as well as as mentioned above, you can use a glucometer - a device for measuring the sugar content in the body. It is best to use electrochemical glucometers.
To make a measurement, a small amount of biological fluid from a finger is applied to the test strip, then it is placed inside the device. Literally within 15-30 seconds, you can get an accurate result.
Before piercing your finger, you need to carry out hygienic procedures, wash your hands with soap and water. In no case can finger be treated with liquids that include alcohol in their composition. Distortion of results is not excluded.
Blood sugar measurement is a procedure that allows you to notice the deviation of indicators from the norm in time, and take the necessary actions, respectively, to prevent complications.
About the optimal level of sugar in the blood will tell the video in this article.
- Stabilizes sugar levels for long
- Restores insulin production by the pancreas
Type 2 diabetes is rapidly getting younger!
Doctors diagnosed a three-year-old American ... type 2 diabetes! This is the youngest patient in the world with such a diagnosis.
Type II diabetes - acquired, diagnosed mainly in people of mature age and advanced years. Over the past decade, the disease has increasingly begun to be found in young people. There are cases when such a diagnosis was made to adolescents. But for the disease to “hook” a three-year-old child - this has not happened yet.
This is a global problem. Type II diabetes is no longer age-related. Every seven seconds two new cases of this disease are diagnosed in the world. And one person loses life because of the complications of this disease. The disease is rapidly getting younger. And this is a global trend.
Diabetes mellitus is the third most prevalent in the world (after cardiovascular and cancer diseases). According to experts, in 15 years this disease will become the main cause of death. Over the past 20 years, the number of people suffering from diabetes has increased almost 10 times. Approximately the same dynamics demonstrated obesity. Overweight is the main cause of type II diabetes. No wonder, when a child with obesity gets to the doctors at the reception, they are sure to check if he is ill with diabetes.
Type II diabetes is a chronic disease that shortens a person’s life by about 10 years. This is due to the risk of complications: heart attacks, strokes (this causes the death of every second patient), amputations (due to insufficient blood circulation in the lower extremities), renal failure (10-20% of cases die from it), diabetic retinopathy (after 15 years every fiftieth sick person becomes blind, every tenth has serious vision problems, diabetic neuropathy (nerves are affected in every second), trophic ulcers. Patients usually go to doctors for the 7-8th year of the disease, when the disease has already "gained momentum."
Mainly people who have bad genetics and at the same time have unhealthy habits are ill. If someone from the next of kin was ill with diabetes, a sword of Damocles is already hanging above you. If you are a woman, the risk is even greater. If you get fat - you are doomed - endocrinologists scare you with predictions. They urge not to overeat, eat healthy foods (sweets, cakes, sugary soft drinks, fatty foods that contain saturated and trans fats, do not provoke the disease itself, but provoke obesity). We need to move more (scientists estimated that almost every tenth patient fell ill due to physical inactivity), avoid stress and ... get enough sleep. Scientists also associate sleep deficiency with an increased risk of type II diabetes.
Have you not checked your blood sugar for a long time? Experts advise to pass the analysis tomorrow, if:
- you are the oldest 45 years old
- blood pressure "exceeded" for 135/80 ..,
- diabetes was diagnosed in the next of kin - grandmother, grandfather, mother, father, sister, brother, aunt, uncle,
- hurt (or are sick) polycystic ovaries,
- have excess weight. To determine the mass index of your body, you can use the following formula: body weight in kilograms divided by the person's height in meters, squared. Following this, if a person weighs 70 kg, and his height - 1.65 m, 70 divided by 2.72. Therefore, your body mass index is 25.73. This means that you have a pre-obesity (fullness). An index of less than 18.5 indicates insufficient weight, if it does not go beyond 18.5-24.9 - everything is normal, is in the range of 25-29.9 - the person already has a pre-obesity, the index is from 30 to 34.9 - speaks of obesity I degree, 35-39,9 - “earned” obesity II degree, everything above 40 indicates obesity III degree. That is why the first thing that an endocrinologist will advise a diabetic patient is to lose weight. It should be recognized that many patients ignore this recommendation (“Not only am I sick, they also want to freeze me with hunger!”).
Doctors call to sound the alarm if:
- constantly thirsty,
- Disturbed frequent urination,
- for no apparent reason began to lose weight,
- reduces calf muscles,
- skin and mucous of genitals are scratched,
- wounds do not heal for a long time,
- you feel tired, always want to sleep,